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Table 1 Anthropometric and metabolic changes of all subjects and non-DM group over time

From: A 6-month “self-monitoring” lifestyle modification with increased sunlight exposure modestly improves vitamin D status, lipid profile and glycemic status in overweight and obese Saudi adults with varying glycemic levels

  All subjects Non-DMT2 group
Baseline 6 months P-value Baseline 6 months P-value
M/F 37/113 15/51
Age (years) 44.78 ± 0.93 39.8 ± 1.44
BMI (kg/m2) 32.3 ± 0.5 32.2 ± 0.5 NS 32.6 ± 0.8 32.5 ± 0.8 NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 115.7 ± 1.7 115.4 ± 1.8 NS 115.4 ± 2.4 114.6 ± 2.5 NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 84.8 ± 2.2 85.1 ± 24.7 NS 81.2 ± 3.3 82.6 ± 3.3 NS
Glucose (mmol/l) 6.1 ± 0.2 6.0 ± 0.2 NS 4.6 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 0.0002
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.7 ± 0.07 1.6 ± 0.06 0.048 1.62 ± 0.1 1.47 ± 0.08 NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.7 ± 0.09 4.3 ± 0.08 5.3 × 10−6 4.6 ± 0.13 4.3 ± 0.11 NS
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.1 ± 0.03 0.87 ± 0.05 3.0 × 10−4 1.1 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.07 0.002
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.5 ± 0.11 3.1 ± 0.09 2.5 × 10−5 3.3 ± 0.14 3.06 ± 0.12 NS
Calcium (mmol/l) 2.1 ± 0.01 2.2 ± 0.01 1.1 × 10−7 2.07 ± 0.02 2.23 ± 0.02 0.0008
Corrected calcium (mmol/l) 2.2 ± 0.01 2.3 ± 0.01 7.3 × 10−8 2.17 ± 0.02 2.28 ± 0.02 0.001
Phosphate (mmol/l) 1.08 ± 0.05 1.11 ± 0.02 NS 1.08 ± 0.12 1.09 ± 0.02 NS
Albumin (g/l) 36.4 ± 0.46 37.6 ± 0.37 0.026 35.2 ± 0.68 37.6 ± 0.6 0.004
25-OH D (nmol/l) 45.7 ± 2.2 55.8 ± 2.7 3.3 x 10−4 42.3 ± 2.8 53.6 ± 3.6 0.004
  1. Note: Data presented as mean ± standard error; NS – not significant; significance at p < 0.05.