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Table 1 Effects of free sterols and stanols on LDL cholesterol and cholesterol absorption parameters.

From: Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

Reference Products Vehicle Subject Condition: Starting mean TC mM Daily Dose g Free sterol/stanol Equivalents #Servings/d Outcome: Where possible, Placebo-adjusted % decrease LDL is given = % decrease with sterol (To vs Tf) % decrease with placebo (To vs Tf). C-abs also indicated
[59] A2
C2
Spread 9 Normocholesterolemic 1.0
1.3
  ↓ C-abs 42.0%
↓ C-abs 33.0%
[176] B2 Sunflower oil (Capsule) 3 M, 3 W Hypercholesterolemic 1.5   ↓ LDL 14.4%
[27] A1
B1
Mayonnaise 24 M&W 6.5 0.96
1.0
Habitual usage ↓ TC 5.7%
↓ TC 2.4%
[28] A1
B1
D1
Mayonnaise 22 M, 9 W >6.0 1.0
1.0
1.2
Habitual usage ↓ LDL 6.2%
↓ LDL 5.1%
↓ LDL 7.7%
[21] B1+step 1 diet Capsules with sterols consumed with food 33 M 6.2 3.0
3.0 with 8 g cholestyramine 8 g of cholestyramine
3 ↓ LDL 1.8%
[33] A2 Spread 12 M Normocholesterolemic 0.7   ↓ LDL 6.1%
[177] A2 olive oil 8 M, 8 W 3.7 M, 4.1 W 0.4 g/1000 Kcal 3 ↓ LDL 2.8%
[103] A1 Spread 22 5.0 minimum 1.6   ↓ LDL 15 % Normocholesterolemics
↓ LDL 4.7% hypercholesterolmics
[97] B1+prudent diet Spread 32 M 6.7–6.8 1.7 3 ↓ LDL 15%
[22] B2 +soylecithin Spread 4 M, 2 W 5.2 1.0-B2 powder
0.3–0.7-B2/lecithin micellar mix
  ↓ C-abs 11.0%
↓ C-abs 34.4% at 0.3 g
↓ C-abs 36.7% at 0.7 g
[20] A2 Spread 39 M, 37 W 4.9–5.1 0.8 Habitual usage ↓ LDL 6%, ↓ TC 9%
[69] B1 Liquid emulsion 12 M 6.9 3 3 ↓ C-abs 40%
[100] A1
B1
1:1 mixture
A1:B1
Butter fat ± sterols 9 M, 6 W 6.5 1.8 3 ↓ LDL 13.3%, ↓ C-abs 56.1%
↓ LDL 13.4%, ↓ C-abs 33.3%
↓ LDL 16.0%, ↓ C-abs 49.2%
[44] A2 Vegetable oil, partly filled milk 18 M 7.0 1.8 2 ↓ C-abs 39%
[71] A2 Vegetable oil, partly filled milk 33 M <5.2 2.2 2 ↓ C-abs 51.1%
[42] A2 Vegetable oil, partly filled milk 18 M, 51 F 7.0 1.2 or 1.6 2 ↓ LDL 7.1% at 1.2 g
↓ LDL 9.6% at 1.6 g
  1. Abbreviation: C-abs, cholesterol absorption; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; To and Tf refer to start and end points of the study; M, men; W, women; A, free plant sterol; B, free plant stanol; C, plant sterol ester; D, plant stanol ester; 1, tall sterol; 2, soy sterol; 3, shea sterol; 4, corn sterol; 5, rice sterol.