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Table 4 Endpoint plasma inflammation- and coagulation-related markers (n = 21)

From: Fish-oil esters of plant sterols differ from vegetable-oil sterol esters in triglycerides lowering, carotenoid bioavailability and impact on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentrations in hypercholesterolemic subjects

  PS-SO2 PS-OO PS-FO P value3
Inflammation     
   TNF-α (ng/L) 1.03 ± 0.191 1.03 ± 0.21 1.06 ± 0.24 0.9046
   IL-6 (ng/L) 1.77 ± 0.22 1.91 ± 0.22 1.50 ± 0.17 0.1501
   CRP (mg/L) 1.42 ± 0.48 1.48 ± 0.49 1.71 ± 0.63 0.8656
   PSA4 (μg/L) 0.92 ± 0.10 0.84 ± 0.08 0.89 ± 0.09 0.6102
Coagulation     
   PAI-1 (μg/L) 40.3 ± 11.5a 26.6 ± 5.5ab 20.5 ± 2.6b 0.0297
   Fibrinogen (g/L) 3.41 ± 0.15 3.42 ± 0.11 3.25 ± 0.11 0.2217
  1. 1 Values are means ± SE's.
  2. 2 CRP: C-reactive protein; IL-6: Interleukin-6; PAI-1: Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1; PSA: prostate specific antigen; PS-SO: plant sterols esterified with sunflower oil fatty acids; PS-OO: plant sterols esterified with olive oil fatty acids; PS-FO: plant sterols esterified with fish oil fatty acids; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor – α
  3. 3 P values obtained by repeated-measures ANOVA.
  4. a, bValues not sharing a common superscript letter are significantly different at P < 0.05.
  5. 4 Chronic inflammation was suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia [54], which is associated with elevated PSA levels; n = 10