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Table 4 Effects of apoE4 genotype on herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection and outcome in humans

From: Apolipoprotein E genotype and hepatitis C, HIV and herpes simplex disease risk: a literature review

Reference Subjects and profile Parameter Outcome
Itzhaki et al. 1997 [98] 46 Caucasian AD patients and 44 Caucasian non-AD elderly controls risk of AD highest in ε4 carriers positive for HSV-1
  40 Caucasian cold-score sufferers and 33 age-matched Caucasian healthy controls risk of HSV-1-induced cold-scores ε4 > non-ε4
Itabashi et al. 1997 [99] 46 elderly AD patients and 23 age-matched controls without confirmed neuropsychiatric disease HSV and risk of AD latent HSV infection alone is not an independent risk factor for AD, the combination of ε4 and HSV infection increases the risk
Beffert et al. 1998 [97] 73 elderly AD patients and 33 non-AD controls - susceptibility to HSV-1 infection in brain
- risk of AD
ε4 = non-ε4
no effect of HSV-1 and ε4 combined
Letenneur et al. 2008 [100] 512 French individuals in a population based cohort study apoE genotype and HSV immunoglobulin status as risk factors for AD no interactions between apoE status and HSV immunoglobulin status on risk of AD
  1. HSV: herpes simplex virus, AD: Alzheimer's disease, CNS: central nervous system