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Table 1 Characteristics of the ATTICA study’s participants (n = 2020) according to the 10-year fatal or non-fatal incidence of CVD

From: Hierarchical modelling of blood lipids’ profile and 10-year (2002–2012) all cause mortality and incidence of cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA study

   Status at 10-year follow – up  
  Baseline CVD event free (n = 1703) CVD events (n = 317) p
Age, yrs 45 ± 14 43 ± 13 58 ± 13 <0.001
Male gender, % 50 % 48 % 63 % <0.001
Years of school 12 ± 4 13 ± 4 10 ± 4 <0.001
Smoking at baseline or before, % 43 % 55 % 57 % 0.462
Physical activity, % 41 % 41 % 41 % 0.999
MedDietScore (0–55) 26 ± 7 26 ± 6 23 ± 7 <0.001
Hypertension, % 30 % 28 % 51 % <0.001
Hypercholesterolemia, % 39 % 40 % 57 % <0.001
Use of lipid-lowering meds, % 25 % 38 % 21 % <0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.99 ± 1.09 4.99 ± 1.06 5.33 ± 1.09 <0.001
HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.24 ± 0.39 1.27 ± 0.39 1.16 ± 0.31 <0.001
LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 3.15 ± 0.96 3.13 ± 0.96 3.39 ± 1.03 <0.001
Apolipoprotein AI, mg/dL 154 ± 27 156 ± 27 150 ± 24 0.001
Apolipoprotein B, mg/dL 108 ± 38 106 ± 42 109 ± 29 <0.001
Triglycerides, mmol/L** 1.13 ± 0.42 1.08 ± 0.41 1.48 ± 0.51 <0.001
Lipoprotein-a, mg/dL** 11 ± 9.5 11 ± 9.5 13 ± 11 0.052
Diabetes, % 7 % 5 % 22 % <0.001
Obesity, % 18 % 17 % 28 % <0.001
Family history of CVD, % 28 % 28 % 32 % 0.297
  1. *p-values for the comparisons between CVD event and event-free group derived using the t-test for age, total, HDL-cholesterol and MedDietScore or Mann–Whitney non-parametric test (**) for years of school and the rest lipids, while for the comparisons of categorical variables using the chi-square test