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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by quartiles of serum trans fatty acids

From: Serum trans fatty acids, asymmetric dimethylarginine and risk of acute myocardial infarction and mortality in patients with suspected coronary heart disease: a prospective cohort study

   Quartiles of serum trans fatty acids (wt%)  
Total Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
  0.30 (0.10, 0.36)a 0.41 (0.37, 0.45) 0.51 (0.46, 0.55) 0.64 (0.56, 1.61)
n = 1364 n = 355 n = 325 n = 331 n = 353 p-trendb
Demographic and clinical characteristics       
Male sexc 1019 (74.7) 296 (83.4) 240 (73.8) 239 (72.2) 244 (69.1) <0.001
Age (years)d 61 (54, 69) 57 (51, 63) 61 (54, 68) 64 (56, 71) 65 (55, 72) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 26.2 (24.1, 28.7) 26.7 (24.4, 29.0) 26.0 (24.3, 28.7) 26.1 (24.0, 28.7) 26.1 (23.8, 28.7) 0.11
Fasting 187 (14.5) 69 (20.7) 46 (15.0) 34 (10.7) 38 (11.4) <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 (75, 88) 81 (75, 90) 80 (75, 87) 80 (74, 87) 80 (74, 89) 1.00
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 (125, 152) 139 (126, 154) 139 (125, 150) 136 (124, 150) 137 (122, 154) 0.08
Cardiovascular history       
Previous AMI 553 (40.5) 140 (39.4) 126 (38.8) 137 (41.4) 150 (42.5) 0.84
Previous PCI 239 (17.5) 83 (23.4) 61 (18.8) 45 (13.6) 50 (14.2) <0.01
Previous CABG 134 (9.8) 32 (9.0) 38 (11.7) 33 (10.0) 31 (8.8) 0.70
Risk factors       
Impaired ejection fraction 151 (11.1) 42 (11.8) 30 (9.2) 38 (11.5) 41 (11.6) 0.98
Diabetes 140 (10.3) 38 (10.7) 26 (8.0) 33 (10.0) 43 (12.2) 0.71
Current smoker 457 (33.5) 158 (44.5) 101 (31.1) 92 (27.8) 106 (30.0) 0.05
Clinical diagnosis before baseline coronary angiography     
Stable angina 1273 (93.3) 318 (89.6) 296 (91.1) 315 (95.2) 344 (97.5) <0.001
Acute coronary syndrome 91 (6.7) 37 (10.4) 29 (8.9) 16 (4.8) 9 (2.5) <0.001
Extent of coronary artery stenosis at baseline coronary angiography     
No significant stenosis 234 (17.2) 44 (12.4) 67 (20.6) 58 (17.5) 65 (18.4) 0.09
1-vessel disease 368 (27.0) 134 (37.7) 74 (22.8) 85 (25.7) 75 (21.2) <0.001
2-vessel disease 329 (26.3) 91 (25.6) 82 (25.2) 94 (28.4) 92 (26.1) 0.35
3-vesseldisease 403 (29.5) 86 (24.2) 102 (31.4) 94 (28.4) 121 (34.3) 0.04
Medication following baseline coronary angiography     
Acetylsalisylic acid 1175 (86.1) 316 (89.0) 276 (84.9) 284 (85.8) 299 (84.7) 0.14
ADP receptor blocker 322 (23.6) 118 (33.2) 75 (23.1) 60 (18.1) 69 (19.5) <0.01
Statins 1107 (81.2) 309 (87.0) 263 (80.9) 255 (77.0) 280 (79.3) 0.01
β-blockers 1022 (74.9) 268 (75.5) 235 (72.5) 248 (74.9) 271 (77.0) 0.43
ACE inhibitors 272 (19.9) 75 (21.1) 64 (19.7) 60 (18.1) 73 (20.7) 0.36
Loop diuretika 145 (10.6) 26 (7.3) 32 (9.8) 42 (12.7) 45 (12.7) 0.11
Fatty acids       
Total fatty acids (mg/L) 3932 (3320, 4673) 3913 (3225, 4646) 3881 (3345, 4490) 3883 (3293, 4570) 4114 (3407, 4835) 0.02
Trans fatty acid (mg/L) 17.8 (13.3, 23.8) 11.5 (8.97, 14.0) 15.8 (13.3, 18.7) 19.6 (16.5, 23.1) 26.9 (22.3, 33.8) <0.001
Trans 16:1n7 (mg/L) 2.64 (1.91, 3.68) 1.75 (1.36, 2.24) 2.46 (1.89, 3.09) 2.95 (2.40, 3.77) 3.81 (2.93, 4.94) <0.001
Trans 18:1 (mg/L) 15.0 (11.2, 20.2) 9.66 (7.57, 11.8) 13.3 (11.2, 15.6) 16.4 (14.0, 19.7) 22.9 (18.8, 29.1) <0.001
Lipid related parameters      
ApoA1 (g/L) 1.29 (1.14, 1.46) 1.31 (1.17, 1.49) 1.31 (1.14, 1.48) 1.28 (1.13, 1.43) 1.26 (1.12, 1.45) <0.01
ApoB (g/L) 0.91 (0.76, 1.07) 0.89 (0.76, 1.06) 0.91 (0.76, 1.07) 0.91 (0.74, 1.08) 0.92 (0.78, 1.07) 0.16
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.00 (4.30, 5.80) 5.00 (4.30, 5.70) 5.10 (4.40, 5.95) 5.00 (4.30, 5.90) 5.10 (4.30, 5.80) 0.33
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.20 (1.00, 1.43) 1.20 (1.00, 1.40) 1.20 (1.00, 1.50) 1.20 (1.00, 1.40) 1.17 (0.94, 1.40) 1.00
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.52 (1.13, 2.15) 1.44 (1.08, 2.18) 1.48 (1.13, 1.92) 1.49 (1.08, 2.02) 1.67 (1.20, 2.40) 0.01
Lp(a) (mmol/L) 0.21 (0.10, 0.54) 0.25 (0.11, 0.59) 0.22 (0.10, 0.54) 0.19 (0.09, 0.48) 0.22 (0.10, 0.54) 0.11
Other parameters      
Glucose (mmol/L) 5.70 (5.10, 6.70) 5.80 (5.10, 6.80) 5.60 (5.10, 6.50) 5.60 (5.20, 6.50) 5.70 (5.00, 6.80) 1.00
HbA1c (mmol/L) 5.84 (5.17, 6.54) 5.77 (5.19, 6.38) 5.77 (5.12, 6.44) 5.95 (5.22, 6.65) 5.87 (5.09, 6.73) 0.11
Arginine (μmol/L) 71.5 (50.9, 90.5) 77.8 (56.0, 96.5) 70.4 (51.2, 87.7) 65.3 (50.2, 88.2) 71.6 (49.1, 91.1) <0.01
ADMA (μmol/L) 0.59 (00.50, 0.70) 0.54 (0.48, 0.65) 0.57 (0.49, 0.68) 0.61 (0.52, 0.74) 0.61 (0.52, 0.74) <0.001
eGFR (mL/min) 91.0 (78.0, 99.0) 96.0 (85.0, 103) 90.0 (79.0, 99.0) 89.0 (77.0, 98.0) 87.0 (70.5, 97.5) <0.001
CRP (mg/L) 1.92 (0.95, 3.98) 2.18 (1.00, 4.28) 1.82 (0.89, 3.91) 1.82 (0.97, 3.66) 1.97 (1.00, 3.77) 0.40
  1. Abbreviations: ApoA-1 apolipoprotein A-1, BCA baseline coronary angiography, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, GFR glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, Lp(a) lipoprotein(a), PCI percutanous coronary intervention, wt% percentage by weight
  2. aMedian (range)
  3. bMedian linear regression for continuous and logistic regression for categorical variables
  4. cCount (percentage) for all such values
  5. dMedian (25th, 75th percentile) for all such values