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Table 1 Characteristics of subjects

From: A U-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiometabolic index in middle-aged men

  Overall subjects Drinker group
Non Light Moderate Heavy Very heavy
Number 21572 6430 2524 7741 4191 686
Age (years) 48.3 ± 7.5 47.0 ± 7.7 47.9 ± 7.6** 48.8 ± 7.4** 49.4 ± 7.2** 47.6 ± 7.3
Smokers (%) 61.0 55.3 58.8** 63.0** 65.7** 70.1**
Habitual exercise (%) 9.9 9.0 10.1 10.2* 10.1 12.4**
Therapy for diabetes (%) 2.7 3.7 2.6** 2.1** 2.5** 1.2**
Height (cm) 169.3 ± 6.2 169.1 ± 6.4 169.3 ± 6.1 169. 3 ± 6.0 169. 5 ± 6.0* 170. 1 ± 6.2**
Waist circumference (cm) 83.3 ± 8.7 83.5 ± 10.0 82.5 ± 8.1** 83.1 ± 8.1* 83.6 ± 8.1 84.2 ± 8.7
Waist-to-height ratio 0.492 ± 0.051 0.494 ± 0.058 0.487 ± 0.048** 0.491 ± 0.047** 0.493 ± 0.047 0.495 ± 0.049
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 118 (78, 185) 116 (79, 178) 109 (73, 164)** 118 (77, 184) 130 (80, 208)** 144 (88, 236)**
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 57.5 ± 15.4 50.8 ± 12.6 57.5 ± 14.2** 60.1 ± 15.6** 61.9 ± 16.0** 63.2 ± 16.6**
CMI 1.05 (0.59, 1.89) 1.16 (0.67, 2.07) 0.95 (0.55, 1.65)** 0.99 (0.56, 1.76)** 1.06 (0.57, 2.01)** 1.15 (0.64, 2.18)
1.60 ± 1.98 1.66 ± 1.65 1.38 ± 1.54 1.52 ± 1.91 1.77 ± 2.68 1.80 ± 1.98
High CMI (%) 30.7 34.3 25.8** 28.0** 32.1* 35.7
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 5.50 ± 0.72 5.61 ± 0.86 5.48 ± 0.69** 5.45 ± 0.61** 5.46 ± 0.71** 5.43 ± 0.67**
Hyperglycemia (%) 20.4 25.3 19.0** 18.4** 17.9** 17.3**
  1. Shown are numbers of subjects and means with standard deviations, medians with 25 and 75 percentile values and percentages of each variable. The 25 and 75 percent values of triglycerides and cardiometabolic index (CMI) are shown in the parentheses following their median levels. Asterisks denote significant differences from nondrinkers (*, p < 0.05; **, p < 0.01)