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Table 1 Body weight, glycemic, insulin, adiponectin and inflammatory parameters at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention

From: Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial

  Baseline   6 Months   
  Sardine group (n = 19) Control group (n = 16)   Sardine group (n = 17) Control group (n = 15)    
    P valuea    P value b P within SG c P within CG c
Md/Fe (n) 8/11 8/8 0.64 7/10 7/8 0.76   
Age (years) 60.0 ± 1.7 61.2 ± 2.4 0.83 58.7 ± 1.7 59.8 ± 1.9 0.66   
Weight (kg) 81.7 ± 3.7 75.8 ± 2.9 0.25 80.5 ± 3.7 75.1 ± 2.8 0.71 0.08 0.35
BMIf (kg/m2) 30.5 ± 1.0 28.8 ± 0.8 0.39 30.0 ± 1.0 28.5 ± 0.8 0.70 0.08 0.44
HbA1cg (%) 6.8 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.1 0.59 6.6 ± 0.1 6.4 ± 0.1 0.57 0.08 0.01
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 138.2 ± 6.5 134.3 ± 5.1 0.99 128.6 ± 4.4 129.1 ± 5.4 0.74 0.18 0.36
Fasting insulin (mU/L) 17.2 ± 1.7 15.1 ± 1.8 0.45 11.1 ± 1.8 11.7 ± 2.4 0.37 0.01 0.02
HOMA-IRh 5.9 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 0.6 0.46 3.6 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.9 0.34 0.007 0.04
hs-CRPi (mg/dL) 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1 0.88 0.2 ± 0.0 0.2 ± 0.1 0.73 0.89 0.53
Total adiponectin (μg/mL) 2.1 ± 0.3 2.0 ± 0.4 0.37 3.0 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.4 0.26 0.04 0.16
TNFαj (pg/mL) 5.6 ± 0.2 4.9 ± 0.3 0.44 5.6 ± 0.4 6.1 ± 0.5 0.33 0.71 0.05
IL-6k (pg/mL) 3.5 ± 0.3 3.0 ± 0.3 0.66 3.6 ± 0.4 3.3 ± 0.4 0.91 0.68 0.58
IL-8l (pg/mL) 23.3 ± 3.3 18.7 ± 3.0 0.97 25.3 ± 5.3 18.9 ± 1.3 0.50 0.88 0.91
IL-10m (pg/mL) 1.3 ± 0.1 1.2 ± 0.0 0.28 1.5 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.1 0.31 0.09 0.12
  1. Values are mean ± SE
  2. a Intergroup comparisons at baseline by Mann-Whitney’s U test or X 2
  3. b Differences between groups at 6 months adjusted for baseline values (ANCOVA)
  4. c Intragroup comparisons by Wilcoxon signed-rank test
  5. d M: male
  6. e F: female
  7. f BMI: Body Mass Index
  8. g HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin
  9. h HOMA-IR: homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance
  10. i hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
  11. j TNFα: tumor necrosis factor alpha
  12. l IL-6: interleukin 6
  13. l IL-8: interleukin 8
  14. m IL-10: interleukin 10