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Table 4 Gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 months of dietary intervention

From: Effects of sardine-enriched diet on metabolic control, inflammation and gut microbiota in drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot randomized trial

  Baseline   6 Months   
  Sardine group (n = 16) Control group (n = 14)   Sardine group (n = 16) Control group (n = 14)    
    P valuec    P value d P within SG e P within CG e
Phylum Firmicutesa 0.22 ± 0.002 0.22 ± 0.03 0.56 0.16 ± 0.02 0.15 ± 0.01 0.11 0.01 0.03
Phylum Bacteroidetesa 0.19 ± 0.03 0.12 ± 0.02 0.19 0.17 ± 0.01 0.18 ± 0.01 0.63 1.00 0.08
Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratiob 2.59 ± 0.7 1.99 ± 0.5 1.00 1.19 ± 0.1 0.92 ± 0.1 0.75 0.04 0.06
Bacteroides-Prevotella group a 0.04 ± 0.006 0.05 ± 0.008 0.56 0.06 ± 0.008 0.06 ± 0.01 0.85 0.004 0.12
E.rectale-C.coccoides group a, f 0.09 ± 0.02 0.09 ± 0.02 0.75 0.08 ± 0.02 0.09 ± 0.02 0.97 0.65 0.78
F.prausnitzii a, g 0.02 ± 0.003 0.02 ± 0.004 0.73 0.03 ± 0.005 0.02 ± 0.006 0.54 0.11 0.73
E.coli a, h 0.0008 ± 0.0002 0.02 ± 0.02 0.93 0.005 ± 0.002 0.08 ± 0.08 0.35 0.04 0.04
  1. Values are mean ± SE
  2. a 16S rRNA gene copies of the bacterial group / 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria
  3. b 16S rRNA gene copies of Firmicutes/ 16S rRNA gene copies of Bacteroidetes
  4. c Intergroup comparisons at baseline by Mann-Whitney’s U test
  5. d Differences between groups at 6 months adjusted for baseline values (ANCOVA)
  6. e Intragroup comparisons by Wilcoxon signed-rank test
  7. f E.rectale-C.coccoides: Eubacterium rectale – Clostridium coccoides
  8. g F.prausnitzii: Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
  9. h E.coli: Escherichia coli