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Table 2 Molecular pathways involved in atherosclerosis

From: Mouse models of atherosclerosis: a historical perspective and recent advances

Molecular mechanisms Role in Atherosclerosis References
Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and P-selectin Inflammatory response induced by LDL oxidation [7, 8]
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation Chemotaxis via regulation of chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL5, CCL8, and CXCL9 [166, 169]
Release of platelet derived growth factor Fibrous cap formation [12, 13]
CHOP activation Macrophage apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress [107, 108]
Pattern recognition receptor activation Macrophage apoptosis via activation of CD36-TLR2 pathway [111, 112]
Activation of mitochondrial, Ca2+-dependent pathways Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis via calpain/mPTP/cytochrome C/caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor [140]
cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and the effector caspases Macrophage apoptosis induced by cholesterol loading [141]
Toll-like receptor activation Immune activation through recognition of mitochondrial DNA, which can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) [148]
Upregulation of transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channels VSMC, migration, proliferation and apoptosis; neointimal proliferation [158, 160162]