Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Mean and SEM values for the primary parameters total cholesterol, LDL assessed by three different methods, HDL assessed by four different methods, non-HDL-c (calculated), and triglycerides assessed by two different methods in serum from the NHPs at baseline, during and after treatment with the omega-3 rich phospholipid preparation. Dose levels of the phospholipids, EPA, DHA and choline are given at the end of the table

From: Effects of a purified krill oil phospholipid rich in long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk factors in non-human primates with naturally occurring diabetes type-2 and dyslipidemia

Parameter Group Value Baseline Week after start of treatment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) Control Mean 139 138 139 141 143 144 138 142 156 147 142 145 149 153 169 164 172
SEM 25.9 23.9 26.5 24.1 22.0 31.9 18.3 21.7 20.8 22.6 20.2 18.6 23.8 22.5 30.8 32.7 34.0
Treated Mean 173 172 192 176 176 177 147 148 176 137 140 143 140 155 178 182 196
SEM 41.2 41.2 51.3 37.0 43.6 43.6 19.9 21.2 34.9 22.6 30.8 26.9 21.1 33.5 50.6 53.1 57.7
Control adjusteda 0 0 9 1 −2 0 −12 −15 −12 −27 −23 −24 −26 −21 −24 −18 −15
LDL-c by Selective-chemically clearing method (mg/dL) Control Mean 57.7 57.5 54.5 54.1 53.1 54.8 55.9 50.9 60.3 61.6 65.6 59.0 65.9 67.0 71.9 71.0 66.6
SEM 11.7 6.07 7.15 7.16 4.47 11.98 2.76 4.70 3.80 4.81 6.40 2.07 4.71 4.60 6.96 6.13 7.61
Treated Mean 85.2 91.6 95.8 87.8 87.4 91.9 64.1 61.9 81.1 61.9 48.1 66.3 64.1 75.8 87.7 94.5 98.7
SEM 35.8 38.7 44.4 36.3 36.1 37.3 18.2 17.9 30.1 19.4 5.2 25.5 24.2 27.9 38.6 39.6 38.8
Control adjusteda 0 4 12 7 7 13 −20 −12 −11 −35 −47 −29 −43 −29 −31 −20 −1
LDL particles by NMR (nmol/L) Control Mean 587 - 621 - 664 - 727 - 758 - 728 - 633 876 724 762 760
SEM 175 - 184 - 258 - 258 - 223 - 219 - 130 239 184 220 221
Treated Mean 1085 - 1177 - 1229 - 828 - 1171 - 424 - 627 1000 1058 985 875
SEM 612 - 614 - 633 - 325 - 455 - 247 - 300 423 444 423 259
Control adjusteda 0   9   14   −21   5   −51   −28 −14 23 −1 4
ApoB100 by immune turbidimetry (g/L) Control Mean 0.37 0.36 0.36 0.39 0.37 0.38 0.38 0.41 0.46 0.47 0.52 0.54 0.55 0.58 0.63 0.61 0.60
SEM 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.10 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.11 0.15 0.17 0.16
Treated Mean 0.52 0.50 0.57 0.56 0.64 0.55 0.43 0.45 0.58 0.48 0.57 0.59 0.55 0.62 0.72 0.74 0.78
SEM 0.19 0.19 0.22 0.18 0.27 0.17 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.13 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.20 0.28 0.30 0.31
Control adjusteda 0 −8 6 0 12 7 −19 −22 −14 −31 −30 −36 −40 −36 −31 −26 −13
HDL-c by Polymer-Detergent method (mg/dL) Control Mean 83.8 86.2 86.1 88.7 90.1 94.6 88.4 96.7 106 99.9 93.5 100 102 106 122 119 121
SEM 12.2 13.6 12.3 11.6 16.0 27.1 14.0 21.5 22.1 25.9 17.6 21.9 26.6 23.5 35.3 37.7 38.2
Treated Mean 124 118 138 124 127 123 93.3 97.4 122 86.9 100 96.0 88.3 105 130 136 146
SEM 46.2 45.5 53.5 38.7 45.5 43.9 20.8 22.1 33.7 23.1 41.5 31.5 23.8 35.6 53.6 56.9 61.3
Control adjusteda 0 20 17 17 10 27 23 21 22 18 −13 13 23 19 15 13 11
HDL concentration (calculated) by NMR (mg/dL) Control Mean 67.3 - 66.3 - 65.3 - 60.3 - 56.3 - 58.3 - 56.3 56.3 58.7 58.7 63.3
SEM 13.3 - 18.0 - 17.7 - 15.9 - 11.3 - 10.3 - 13.6 11.6 14.3 14.7 14.0
Treated Mean 62.0 - 66.0 - 58.3 - 69.7 - 62.0 - 56.0 - 72.0 64.7 61.7 62.0 61.0
SEM 11.5 - 7.81 - 8.25 - 8.17 - 5.03 - 18.1 - 9.64 5.67 7.80 9.64 8.62
Control adjusteda 0   14   1   29   20   8   36 25 15 15 7
HDL particles by NMR (μmol/L) Control Mean 36.7 - 34.9 - 34.8 - 33.5 - 32.7 - 34.5 - 35.3 34.2 36.9 37.4 39.7
SEM 6.46 - 5.66 - 5.49 - 6.00 - 4.85 - 4.53 - 4.61 4.75 6.03 5.32 4.75
Treated Mean 35.0 - 38.3 - 36.7 - 35.1 - 35.8 - 40.3 - 39.0 36.7 39.6 38.2 38.8
SEM 1.31 - 1.19 - 1.33 - 2.08 - 2.21 - 4.33 - 2.27 1.41 1.79 1.20 1.19
Control adjusteda 0   14   10   9   12   16   14 11 12 6 1
ApoA1 by immune turbidimetry (g/L) Control Mean 0.98 0.93 0.96 0.93 0.97 0.88 0.94 0.95 0.99 0.94 0.94 0.90 0.90 0.93 0.90 1.24 1.34
SEM 0.08 0.08 0.09 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.06 0.24 0.25
Treated Mean 0.98 0.97 1.02 0.96 1.08 0.94 0.99 0.98 1.02 0.95 0.82 0.90 1.01 0.98 0.93 1.27 1.35
SEM 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.02 0.13 0.04 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.12 0.14
Control adjusteda 0 4 7 3 12 7 5 4 3 2 −2 0 11 5 3 4 1
Non-HDL-c (calculated) (mg/dL) Control Mean 83.8 86.2 86.1 88.7 90.1 94.6 88.4 96.7 106.2 99.9 93.5 100 102 106 122 119 121
SEM 12.2 13.6 12.3 11.6 16.0 27.1 14.0 21.5 22.1 25.9 17.6 21.9 26.6 23.5 35.3 37.7 38.2
Treated Mean 124 118 138 124 127 123 93.3 97.4 122 86.9 100 96.0 88.3 105 130 136 146
SEM 46.2 45.5 53.5 38.7 45.5 43.9 20.8 22.1 33.7 23.1 41.5 31.5 23.8 35.6 53.6 56.9 61.3
Control adjusteda 0 −8 7 −2 −5 −9 −23 −28 −23 −44 −33 −41 −45 −38 −43 −34 −27
Triglycerides by enzymic method (GK-PK-LDH) (mg/dL) Control Mean 99.8 133 123 143 174 174 141 194 213 200 164 210 208 210 239 267 312
SEM 57.3 95.4 85.4 104 127 137 88.3 143 156 149 111 153 168 150 192 217 262
Treated Mean 211 138 225 182 239 129 123 125 188 107 192 123 93 165 231 262 267
SEM 98.5 71.9 102 72.5 103 51.6 40.3 39.7 66.3 42.2 134 59.0 24.7 72.2 126 146 156
Control adjusteda 0 −46 −5 −17 −20 −53 −49 −61 −40 −90 −58 −92 −74 −48 −28 −46 −69
Triglycerides (calculated) by NMR (mg/dL) Control Mean 79.0 - 101 - 151 - 119 - 174 - 141 - 172 178 221 211 256
SEM 30.0 - 45.2 - 93.0 - 65.8 - 116 - 88.7 - 120 119 166 157 200
Treated Mean 166 - 158 - 184 - 87 - 131 - 105 - 65.3 127 190 196 220
SEM 63.6 - 56.5 - 69.4 - 20.6 - 41.0 - 64.2 - 10.0 52.2 103 101 129
Control adjusteda 0   −32   −80   −98   −142   −115   −178 −149 −166 −149 −192
Dose (mg phospholipids/kg bw/day) 50 150 450 0
Dose (mg [EPA/DHA]/kg bw/day) 9.35/5.48 28.0/16.4 84.1/49.3 0/0
Dose (mg choline/kg bw/day) 5.83 17.5 52.5 0
  1. - no sample
  2. a % change of treated group relative to control group