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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study subjects by gender

From: Handgrip strength is positively related to blood pressure and hypertension risk: results from the National Health and nutrition examination survey

  All (4597) Men (2184) Women (2413) t/χ 2 P
Age (yrs) 47.4 ± 18.3 47.1 ± 18.3 47.8 ± 18.3 1.322 0.186
Height (cm) 167.1 ± 10.1 174.3 ± 7.8 160.5 ± 7.1 61.562a < 0.01
Weight (kg) 81.5 ± 22.4 86.9 ± 21.8 76.5 ± 21.7 15.776a < 0.01
BMI (kg/m− 2) 29.1 ± 7.3 28.5 ± 6.5 29.6 ± 7.9 5.360a < 0.01
BMI Category
 Underweight 84 (1.9) 38 (1.8) 46 (2.0) 63.541b < 0.01
 Normal 1278 (29.0) 594 (28.3) 684 (29.6)
 Overweight 1368 (31.1) 767 (36.6) 601 (26.1)
 Obese 1674 (38.0) 698 (33.3) 976 (42.3)
Handgrip strength (kg) 33.9 ± 10.4 41.5 ± 8.8 26.7 ± 5.7 61.850a < 0.01
SBP (mm Hg) 122.8 ± 17.7 124.5 ± 16.3 121.2 ± 18.8 6.197a < 0.01
DBP (mm Hg) 69.7 ± 11.4 70.8 ± 12.0 68.8 ± 10.8 5.562a < 0.01
Smoking 1944 (42.4) 1096 (50.4) 848 (35.2) 107.976b < 0.01
Drinking 2855 (70.0) 1579 (80.5) 1276 (60.2) 199.285b < 0.01
Hypertension 715 (16.7) 355 (17.3) 360 (16.1) 0.985 0.321
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or count (%)
  2. aDifference between men and women was significant using t- test
  3. bDifference between men and women was significant using chi-square test
  4. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure