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Table 5 Resource utilization and associated costs (€) by group

From: Treatment persistence and adherence and their consequences on patient outcomes of generic versus brand-name statins routinely used to treat high cholesterol levels in Spain: a retrospective cost-consequences analysis

Group Brand-name Generic Total P
Number of patients (%) 3007 (22.7%) 10,237 (77.3%) 13,244 (100%)
Resource utilization
 Medical visits (primary care) 48.1 (27.0) 56.4 (26.4) 54.5 (26.8) < 0.001
 Laboratory tests 14.3 (9.7) 17.1 (10.3) 16.4 (10.2 < 0.001
 Conventional radiology 8.0 (7.6) 10.7 (7.7) 10.1 (7.7) < 0.001
 Complementary tests 11.4 (4.4) 15.2 (4.2) 14.3 (4.5) < 0.001
 Days of hospitalization 1.1 (3.8) 1.8 (5.6) 1.6 (5.2) < 0.001
 Medical visits (hospital) 8.3 (7.4) 10.0 (7.9) 9.6 (7.8) < 0.001
 Emergency room visits (hospital) 7.0 (9.0) 8.3 (9.8) 8.0 (9.7) < 0.001
 Days of occupational disability 36.6 (101.1) 37.6 (105.0) 37.4 (104.1) 0.636
Unadjusted costs
 Healthcare costs 8246 (3699) 9071 (4093) 8927 (4039) < 0.001
  Costs in primary care 6320 (2658) 6605 (2657) 6555 (2659) < 0.001
   Medical visits 1105 (630) 1307 (613) 1272 (620) < 0.001
   Laboratory tests 315 (213) 380 (229) 369 (228) < 0.001
   Conventional radiology 149 (142) 199 (142) 190 (143) < 0.001
   Complementary tests 438 (169) 578 (158) 553 (169) < 0.001
   Drugsa 4314 (2377) 4141 (2359) 4171 (2363) 0.002
  Costs in specialized care 1927 (2136) 2466 (2640) 2372 (2567) < 0.001
   Days of hospitalization 332 (1180) 568 (1783) 527 (1696) < 0.001
   Medical visits 763 (691) 923 (725) 895 (721) < 0.001
   Emergency room visits 832 (1098) 976 (1148) 951 (1141) < 0.001
Non-healthcare costs (productivity loss) 3562 (10076) 3806 (10631) 3764 (10536) 0.327
Total costs (€) 11,808 (10854) 12,877 (11969) 12,691 (11789) < 0.001
Adjusted costsb(€) Brand-name Generic Difference p
Healthcare costs 7980 (7853–8808) 9118 (9059–9176) 1137 (997–1277) < 0.001
 Primary care healthcare costs 6070 (6024–6116) 6653 (6632–6674) 583 (532–633) < 0.001
­ Medication cost 4110 (4041–4178) 4188 (4156–4219) 78 (11–149) 0.028
 Specialized healthcare costs 1910 (1805–2016) 2465 (2417–2514) 555 (439–671) < 0.001
Non-healthcare costs (productivity loss) 3594 (3161–4026) 3860 (3662–4058) 267 (101–843) 0.272
Total costs 11,574 (11103–12,045) 12,978 (12762–13,194) 1404 (885–1922) 0.001
  1. Values expressed as mean (SD standard deviation), p brand-name vs. generic, 95% CI 95% confidence interval in parenthesis
  2. aDrugs include statin costs plus all other possible treatments
  3. bAdjusted by age, sex, number of comorbidities, Charlson index, resource utilization band, proportion of subjects reaching their LDL-cholesterol goal at the start of therapy, statin type, prior cardiovascular event and treatment duration. 95% confidence intervals of the differences calculated with non-parametric 1000 bootstrap iterations