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Table 1 Characteristics of the included trials

From: Effects of exercise training on Fetuin-a in obese, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adults and elderly: a systematic review and Meta-analysis

Study and design Sample Age (years) Type of exercise Exercise program characteristics Reduced Fetuin-A EPHPP
Lee et al. 2017 [30] Single-group pre-post design 26 men (13 dysglycemic and overweight) without CVD 51.1 Concurrent Total duration: 12 weeks
Frequency a week: 4 sessions
Duration per session: 60-min
Aerobic; Intensity: NR
Resistance; Intensity: NR
Yes 2
Malin et al. 2013 [28] Single-group pre-post design 13 obese men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease without CVD 50.5 Aerobic Total duration: 1 week
Frequency a week: 5 sessions
Duration per session: 60-min
Intensity: 85% HRmax
Yes 2
Malin et al. 2014[27] Single-group pre-post design 20 older obese men and women without CVD 66.3 Aerobic Total duration: 12 weeks
Frequency a week: 7 sessions
Duration per session: 60-min
Intensity: 85% HRmax
Yes 2
Mori et al. 2008[5] Single-group pre-post design 8 men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus 62.0 Aerobic Total duration: 12 weeks
Frequency a week: 3–5 sessions
Duration per session: 40-min
Intensity: 103 bpm
No 2
Schultes et al. 2010[39] Single-group pre-post design 14 obese women and without CVD 43.2 Aerobic Total duration: 6 weeks
Frequency a week: 3 sessions
Duration per session: 60-min
Intensity: 60% VO2peak
No 3
Wilund et al. 2010[40] RCT 17 hemodialysis men and women 59.9 Aerobic Total duration: 16 weeks
Frequency a week: 3 sessions
Duration per session: 45-min
Intensity: rate of perceived exertion of 12–14
No 4
Winn et al. 2017 [21] Randomized trial without a control group 18 obese men and women without CVD 51.4 Aerobic Total duration: 4 weeks
Frequency a week: 4 sessions
Duration per session: NR
Intensity: 55% VO2peak or 80% VO2peak
No 5
Yang et al. 2011[29] Single-group pre-post design 40 obese women without CVD 45.3 Concurrent Total duration: 12 weeks
Frequency a week: 5 sessions
Duration per session: 65-min
Aerobic; Intensity: 60–75% HRmax
Resistance; Intensity: NR
No 2
Zhang et al. 2017 [41] RCT 32 men and women with type 2 diabetes mellitus 47.2 Aerobic Total duration: 12 weeks
Frequency a week: 5 sessions
Duration per session: 70-min
Aerobic; Intensity: 70% HRmax
Yes 4
  1. Bpm beats per minute, HRmax maximum heart rate.The methodological logical quality of non-randomized controlled trials and studies without control group (N = 8) was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies of the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) (6 evaluation critical methodological components). CVD, cardiovascular disease; RCT, randomised controlled trial