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Table 1 Baseline characteristic of the study groups

From: Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and renal function are associated with apolipoprotein E concentration in patients with chronic kidney disease

Parameter Total APOE subgroup P value
E2 E3 E4
cases 90 (100%) 18 (20%) 58 (64%) 14 (16%) NA
sex [F/M] 37/53 8/10 23/35 6/8 0.92**
age [years] 68 ± 10 65 ± 12 68 ± 11 66 ± 10 0.50*
hypertension 73 (81%) 17 (94%) 45 (78%) 11 (79%) 0.19**
obesity 27 (30%) 7 (39%) 15 (26%) 5 (36%) 0.50**
BMI [kg/m2] 28 ± 5 29 ± 7 27 ± 4 29 ± 5 0.27*
elevated WHR (≥ 1 for males, ≥ 0.85 for females) 45 (50%) 11 (61%) 26 (45%) 8 (57%) 0.58**
smoking cigarettes 40 (44%) 11 (61%) 23 (40%) 6 (42%) 0.28**
statin therapy 48 (53%) 11 (61%) 27 (47%) 10 (71%) 0.18**
G3a stage CKD 28 (31%) 4 (22%) 20 (35%) 4 (29%) 0.59**
G3b stage CKD 42 (47%) 7 (39%) 29 (50%) 6 (42%) 0.68**
G4 stage CKD 20 (22%) 7 (39%) 9 (15%) 4 (29%) 0.11**
creatinine [mg/dl] 1.6 (1.2–2.6) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 1.6 (1.3–2.9) 0.24***
eGFR CKD-EPI [ml/min/1. 73m2] 39 ± 12 37 ± 13 41 ± 12 36 ± 13 0.34*
total protein [g/l] 64.1 ± 4.1 64.5 ± 4.3 63.7 ± 4.0 64.3 ± 4.5 0.49*
albumin [g/l] 42.9 ± 3.1 42.6 ± 3.3 43.0 ± 3.1 42.9 ± 2.7 0.90*
glucose [mg/dl] 95.0 (82.8–109.8) 95.3 (85.7–107) 94.4 (81.7–108.7) 96.7 (83–121) 0.86***
  1. Continuous values are presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) or median and range (10th and 90th percentiles). Differences among the subgroups were analysed using ANOVA*, Pearson’s chi-squared test**, or Kruskall-Wallis test***
  2. BMI - body mass index, WHR - waist-to-hip ratio, CKD - chronic kidney disease, eGFR CKD-EPI - estimated glomerular filtration rate-chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration
  3. Subgroups: E2: ɛ2ɛ3 subjects; E3: ɛ3ɛ3 subjects; E4: ɛ3ɛ4 subjects