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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for 292 T1D patients, comparisons between depressed and non-depressed, antidepressant users and non-users

From: Lower HDL-cholesterol, a known marker of cardiovascular risk, was associated with depression in type 1 diabetes: a cross sectional study

  All Depression (HADS-D ≥ 8p) Antidepressants
Yes No   Yes No  
N = 292 a N = 30 N = 262 P b N = 23 N = 269 P b
Gender Men 162 (55) 16 (53) 146 (56) 0.85 11 (48) 151 (56) 0.51
Women 130 (45) 14 (47) 116 (44) 12 (52) 118 (44)
Age (years) (18–59) 48 (38, 53) 42 (31, 50) 0.069 c 49 (34, 54) 42 (31, 50) 0.050 c
Diabetes duration (years) (1–55) 21 (11, 34) 20 (11, 29) 0.49 c 22 (13, 35) 20 (10, 30) 0.19 c
Depression (HADS-D ≥ 8p) 30 (10) 10 (44) 20 (7) < 0.001
High HbA1c (> 70 mmol/mol) 80 (27) 14 (47) 66 (25) 0.017 11 (48) 69 (26) 0.029
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) (2.1–10.9) 4.4 (4.1, 4.9) 4.6 (4.1, 5.2) 0.105 c 4.4 (4.0, 5.2) 4.6 (4.1, 5.2) 0.50 c
Triglycerides (mmol/l) (0.6–5.9) 0.9 (0.7, 1.6) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.28 c 1.0 (0.7, 1.7) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.43 c
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) (0.3–2.7) 1.3 (1.2, 1.5) 1.6 (1.3, 1.8) 0.011 c 1.4 (1.3, 1.8) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8) 0.72 c
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) (0.6–8.3) 2.8 (2.3, 3.2) 2.8 (2.4–3.3) 0.55 c 2.7 (2.1, 3.3) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 0.34 c
Hs-CRP d (mg/l) (0.3–8.9) 0.9 (0.3, 1.3) 0.6 (0.3, 1.7) 0.53 c 0.9 (0.3, 2.8) 0.7 (0.3, 1.7) 0.70 c
Abdominal obesity e 49 (17) 6 (21) 43 (17) 0.60 8 (35) 41 (16) 0.037
BMI classes f (kg/m2) (≥30) 35 (12) 5 (17) 30 (12) 0.67 g 5 (22) 30 (11) 0.18 g
(25 to < 30) 104 (36) 6 (20) 98 (38) 8 (35) 96 (36)
(18.5 to < 25) 147 (51) 19 (63) 128 (49) 10 (43) 137 (51)
(< 18.5) 4 (1) 0 4 (1) 0 4 (2)
SBP (mm Hg) (90–160) 120 (114, 135) 120 (110, 130) 0.93 c 120 (115, 130) 120 (110, 130) 0.95 c
DBP (mm Hg) (55–100) 70 (69, 78) 70 (70, 75) 0.78 c 75 (70, 80) 70 (68, 75) 0.069 c
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 13 (4) 2 (7) 11 (4) 0.63 0 13 (5) 0.61
Smoking h 28 (10) 5 (17) 23 (9) 0.19 1 (4) 27 (11) 0.71
Physical inactivity i (< 0.5 h/week) 31 (11) 5 (17) 26 (11) 0.35 4 (17) 27 (11) 0.31
Physical activity i > 5 times/week 99 (36) 12 (41) 87 (35) 0.95 g 8 (35) 91 (36) 0.52 g
3–5 times/week 86 (31) 8 (28) 78 (32) 9 (39) 77 (30)
1–2 times/week 59 (22) 4 (14) 55 (22) 2 (8) 57 (23)
<  1 time/week 31 (11) 5 (17) 26 (11) 4 (18) 27 (11)
Clinical psychiatric diagnosis 41 (14) 16 (53) 25 (10) < 0.001 23 (100) 18 (7) < 0.001
Antidepressants 23 (8) 10 (33) 13 (5) < 0.001  
LLD j 135 (46) 14 (47) 121 (46) > 0.99 15 (65) 120 (45) 0.080
AHD k 97 (33) 11 (37) 86 (33) 0.69 10 (44) 87 (32) 0.36
Insulin 275 (94) 29 (97) 246 (94) > 0.99 21 (91) 254 (94) 0.63
Insulin and OAD l 17 (6) 1 (3) 16 (6) 2 (9) 15 (6)
Cardiovascular complications 10 (3%) 4 (13) 6 (2) 0.012 5 (22) 5 (2) < 0.001
  1. Data are n (%), (min-max), or median (q1, q3). a Number is 292 unless otherwise specified. b Fisher’s exact test unless otherwise indicated. d High - sensitivity C-reactive protein, n = 175. c Mann-Whitney U test. e N = 284. f N = 290. g Linear by linear association. h, i N = 275. j Lipid lowering drugs. k Antihypertensive drugs. l Oral antidiabetic drugs