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Table 5 Increase of ARA composition in blood by ARA supplementation to adult humans

From: Intake of arachidonic acid-containing lipids in adult humans: dietary surveys and clinical trials

Participant Supplementation Samplec LCPUFA composition in blood (%)d Ref.
Sexa Age (y)b n Oil Dose (mg/day) Period ARA DHA  
ARA EPA DHA Pre Post Change Pre Post Change  
F 18–23 23 ARA oil 82.8 0.2 0 3 weeks Plasma PL 7.4 ± 0.8 nde 0.7 ± 0.8* 5.6 ± 0.8 nd − 0.5 ± 0.7 [69]
23 Placebo 0 0 0 7.6 ± 1.1 nd −0.4 ± 1.0 5.6 ± 1.0 nd −0.5 ± 0.8
23 ARA oil 82.8 0.2 0 RBC 10.2 ± 0.8 nd 1.1 ± 0.4* 6.4 ± 0.5 nd 0.1 ± 0.4
23 Placebo 0 0 0 10.5 ± 0.8 nd 0.5 ± 0.3 6.5 ± 0.6 nd 0.0 ± 0.3
M 55–64 51 ARA oil + fish oil 120 100 300 4 weeks Plasma PL 8.6 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 0.2# 0.7 ± 0.1* 7.0 ± 0.2 7.8 ± 0.2# 0.8 ± 0.2* [16]
49 Placebo 0 0 0 8.9 ± 0.2 9.1 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.1 6.9 ± 0.2 7.2 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.1
M&F 65 ± 3 13 ARA oil + fish oil 240 0 240 3 months RBC 8.8 ± 1.5 12.5 ± 1.4# nd 6.0 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 1.3# nd [17]
65 ± 3 15 Placebo 0 0 0 10.0 ± 1.1 10.4 ± 1.2 nd 7.6 ± 2.2 8.5 ± 1.1 nd
M&F 56–70 8 ARA oil 700 0 0 12 weeks Plasma PL 9.3 ± 0.4f,*# 17.2 ± 0.5f,*# nd 3.7 ± 0.3f 3.7 ± 0.4f nd [70]
56–69 8 Placebo 0 0 0 8.6 ± 0.3f 9.0 ± 0.9f nd 3.4 ± 0.4f 3.3 ± 0.4f nd
M 55–70 22 ARA oil 720 0 0 4 weeks Plasma PL 8.8 ± 1.3 14.3 ± 2.1# nd nd nd nd [71]
22 ARA oil 240 0 0 8.6 ± 0.9 11.2 ± 1.5# nd nd nd nd
20 Placebo 0 0 0 nd nd nd nd nd nd
M 26–60 12 ARA oil 838 0 0 4 weeks Plasma PL 9.6 ± 0.4 13.9 ± 0.4*# nd 7.7 ± 0.3 7.4 ± 0.3 nd [72]
12 Placebo 0 0 0    9.5 ± 0.4 9.3 ± 0.4 nd 8.6 ± 0.4 8.4 ± 0.4 nd  
M 20–39 10 ARA oil 1500 0 0 50 days Plasma PL nd 19.0g,* nd nd nd nd [73]
10 Placebo 0 0 0 nd 10.3g nd nd nd nd
M&F 67 ± 2.4 15 ARA oil 2000 0 0 8 weeks Plasma PL 8.5 ± 0.6 13.1 ± 1.0# nd nd nd nd [19]
62 ± 2.3 15 Placebo 0 0 0 8.4 ± 0.6 8.0 ± 0.4 nd nd nd nd
67 ± 2.4 15 ARA oil 2000 0 0 RBC 13.8 ± 1.1 14.8 ± 0.9# nd nd nd nd
62 ± 2.3 15 Placebo 0 0 0 10.3 ± 0.8 12.2 ± 0.9 nd nd nd nd
M 19–39 8 ARA oil + algal oil 3600 0 2900 14 days Plasma PL nd 24.7 ± 1.5f,†††† nd nd 6.1 ± 0.3f,†††† nd [74]
19–39 8 ARA oil + algal oil 2200 0 1700 nd 19.9 ± 1.5f,††† nd nd 5.3 ± 0.5f,††† nd
19–39 8 ARA oil + algal oil 800 0 600 nd 15.0 ± 1.6f,†† nd nd 3.4 ± 0.4f,†† nd
19–39 8 Placebo 0 0 0 nd 12.7 ± 2.0f,† nd nd 2.2 ± 0.4f,† nd
  1. *significant difference at p < 0.05 vs. the placebo group
  2. #significant difference at p < 0.05 vs. the pre-value
  3. †,††,†††,††††Values with different number of daggers are significantly different at p < 0.05
  4. aM male, F female
  5. bMean ± SD or range
  6. cPL phospholipids, RBC red blood cells
  7. dData are the mean ± SD without annotation
  8. end not described
  9. fMean ± SE
  10. gMean