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Table 2 Effects of Palmitoleic acid in vivo and in vitro clinical trials

From: The impact of sea buckthorn oil fatty acids on human health



Suggested mechanism


Vaginal inflammatory atrophy

Human in vivo study

The mechanism is unknown but it reflects a positive increasing trend of the vaginal health index without an increase of circulating estrogen level

Erkkola & Yang (2003) [11]

Limo (2004)

Skin hyperpigmentation

In vitro study

Decrease hyperpigmentation though the Inhibition of tyrosinase, TRP-2 and MITF

Yoon (2010) [12]

Wounds infections

In vitro study

Take part in the growth of C.albicans

decreasing its ability of adhesion in the skin and prevent the attachment of pathogenic yeast cells.

Wille & Kydonieus (2002)

Bacterial infection

In vitro study

PA calcium salt has a bactericidal effect against S. aureus and P. acnes.

Yamamoto (2015) [7]


Mice in vivo study

A possible mechanisms may

be related to the increase of LCAT

Budijanto (1992) [14]

Diabetes and liver dysfunctions

Mice in vivo study

It stimulate the uptake glucose and impaired the lipogenesis in liver by activation of AMPk and FGF-21, depending on PPAR-α

Souza (2016)

Yang & Zhi-Hong (2010)