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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants

From: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are positively associated with the risk of endobronchial biopsy-induced refractory hemorrhage in patients with lung cancer

Variables EBB-induced refractory hemorrhage P-value
Yes (n = 91) No (n = 568)
 Gender, n (%)    0.305
  Female 16 (17.6) 127 (22.4)  
  Male 75 (82.4) 441 (77.6)  
 Age (year), median (Q1-Q3) 65 (59–72) 65 (59–70) 0.561
 Weight (kg), median (Q1-Q3) 59.5 (53.0–65.2) 59.0 (53.0–66.0) 0.794
 Smoking, n (%)    0.027
  No 24 (26.4) 218 (38.4)  
  Yes 67 (73.6) 350 (61.6)  
 SBP (mmHg), median (Q1-Q3) 129 (112–144) 131 (119–145) 0.285
 DBP (mmHg), median (Q1-Q3) 79.0 (71–88) 78.0 (70–87) 0.361
Coexisting Disease
 COPD, n (%)    0.826
  No 84 (92.3) 528 (93.0)  
  Yes 7 (7.7) 40 (7.0)  
 Hypertension, n (%)    0.140
  No 63 (69.2) 434 (76.4)  
  Yes 28 (30.8) 134 (23.6)  
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)    0.294
  No 89 (97.8) 538 (94.7)  
  Yes 2 (2.2) 30 (5.3)  
 CHD, n (%)    1.000
  No 88 (96.7) 548 (96.5)  
  Yes 3 (3.3) 20 (3.5)  
Tumor Characteristics
 Location of the lesion, n (%)    0.045
  Central airways 20 (22.0) 79 (13.9)  
  Peripheral bronchi 71 (78.0) 489 (86.1)  
 Stage of cancer, n (%)    0.461
  Early 52 (57.1) 301 (53.0)  
  Advanced 39 (42.9) 267 (47.0)  
 Histological types, n (%)    < 0.001
  Adenocarcinoma 11 (12.1) 165 (29.0)  
  Squamous cell carcinoma 63 (69.2) 268 (47.2)  
  SCLC 13 (14.3) 103 (18.1)  
  Othera 4 (4.4) 32 (5.6)  
Laboratory Tests, median (Q1-Q3)
  WBC (×109/L) 6.8 (5.5–8.9) 6.8 (5.5–8.6) 0.977
  Neutrophils (%) 72.2 (64.2–80.4) 69.5 (61.9–76.1) 0.025
  Hemoglobin (g/L) 126 (116–137) 128 (116–140) 0.325
  platelets (× 109/L) 237 (167–296) 225 (174.0–284) 0.687
  CRP (mg/L) 12.7 (3.0–37.7) 5.9 (1.1–28.9) 0.009
  PT (S) 13.2 (12.3–13.6) 12.6 (11.7–13.3) < 0.001
  APTT (S) 36.1 (33.0–40.0) 34.0 (31.5–37.1) < 0.001
  ALT (IU/L) 14.0 (11.5–21.3) 17.0 (12.0–26.0) 0.027
  AST (IU/L) 22.6 (18.0–27.1) 23.0 (19.0–29.0) 0.289
  Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.0 (0.8–1.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.793
  TC (mmol/L) 4.1 (3.6–4.7) 4.1 (3.5–4.8) 0.663
  HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.069
  LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.9 (2.4–3.4) 2.7 (2.2–3.3) 0.143
  Apolipoprotein B (g/L) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.569
  Apolipoprotein E (mg/dL) 3.3 (2.5–4.4) 3.6 (2.8–4.7) 0.078
  1. a “Other” includes histological type of NSCLC (not specified, n = 12), neuroendocrine carcinoma (n = 7), adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 5), muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 2), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1), carcinosarcoma (n = 1) and lung cancer without histological type specified (n = 8). EBB, endobronchial biopsy, SBP, systolic blood pressure, DBP, diastolic blood pressure, COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CHD, coronary heart disease, SCLC, small-cell lung carcinoma, WBC, white blood cell, CRP, C-reactive protein, PT, prothrombin time, APTT, activated partial thromboplastin time, ALT, alanine aminotransferase, AST, aspartate aminotransferase, TC, total cholesterol, HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol