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Table 1 Web-based survey used to investigate beliefs and behaviour in dyslipidaemia management in the four countries*

From: Gaps in beliefs and practice in dyslipidaemia management in Japan, Germany, Colombia and the Philippines: insights from a web-based physician survey

QuestionaResponses
2. Do you believe that elevated LDL cholesterol is an important cause of coronary disease and ischaemic stroke?Yes/No/Uncertain
3. Concerning use of statin, do you have concerns related to any of the following. (More than one item can be selected)?· Increase of the risk of haemorrhagic stroke
· Increase of the risk of cognitive impairment
· Increase of the risk of new onset diabetes
· Development of muscle disorder
· Increased risk of hepatic disease
· Others (Please specify)
· Do not have any concern
4. Do you have concerns about lowering LDL cholesterol levels in patients with· Haemorrhagic stroke: Yes/No/Uncertain
· Ischaemic stroke: Yes/No/Uncertain
· Transient ischaemic attack (TIA): Yes/No/Uncertain
· Subarachnoid haemorrhage: Yes/No/Uncertain
5. Do you think statins have any effect on cognitive function?Yes/No/Uncertain
6. Please indicate the percentage of patients who cannot use statins continuously due to adverse effects (such as muscle symptoms, etc.).0% (I have no statin-intolerant patients)
≥ 0.1 to < 5%
≥ 5 to < 10%
≥ 10 to < 15%
≥ 15 to < 20%
≥ 20%
7. Please indicate your target level of LDL cholesterol after initiation of drug therapy in the following patient groups· A history of any coronary artery disease: The target level of LDL cholesterol should be < mg/dl (please specify)
· Without a history of coronary artery disease but with a history of diabetes mellitus/chronic kidney disease/ischaemic stroke/peripheral artery disease: The target level of LDL cholesterol should be < mg/dl (please specify)
· Without a history of the conditions listed above: The target level of LDL cholesterol should be < mg/dl (please specify)
8. Do you have concerns about safety if the LDL cholesterol is below the following levels?· 20 mg/dL (0.52 mmol/L)
· 30 mg/dL (0.78 mmol/L)
· 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L)
· 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L)
· 60 mg/dL (1.55 mmol/L)
· 70 mg/dL (1.80 mmol/L)
· 0ther value [mg/dL or mmol/L]
· Does not have any opinion
9. Do you think markedly low LDL cholesterol levels affect the incidence of haemorrhagic stroke?Yes/No/Uncertain
10. How much does the LDL cholesterol level affect the risk of inducing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases?· Affects the risk significantly
· Affects the risk moderately
· Uncertain
· Affects the risk to a small extent
· Does not affect the risk
11 Do you sometimes use “non-HDL cholesterol level” as a risk index of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD, coronary artery diseases, non-cardiogenic cerebral infarction) or a therapeutic efficacy index during your medical practice?· non-HDL cholesterol level is not used
· non-HDL cholesterol level is sometimes used as “a risk index of ASCVD”
· non-HDL cholesterol level is sometimes used as “a therapeutic efficacy index.”
· non-HDL cholesterol level is sometimes used as both “a risk index of ASCVD” and “a therapeutic efficacy index.”
12. For Japan: Concerning “Comprehensive risk management chart for the prevention of cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases” developed in 2015 mainly by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, please inform us about the status of your recognition/use of the chart.· I know about this chart and am actually using it
· I know about this chart, but have never used it
· I do not know about this chart.
For Germany: Concerning the European Guidelines (ESC/EAS) for lipid management.· I know about the guidelines and I am actually using them
· I know about the guidelines, but I have never used them.
· I do not know about the guidelines
For Colombia: Concerning the AHA/ACC Guidelines for lipid management· I know about the guidelines and I am actually using them
· I know about the guidelines, but I have never used them.
· I do not know about the guidelines
13. Concerning Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH, one type of primary hyperlipidaemia), which best reflects your practice?· I know about FH and have patients with FH (which was found by my diagnosis) and am engaged in their treatment.
· I know about FH and have referred patients with suspected FH to some other medical institution/physician.
· I know about FH but have never seen a patient with suspected FH.
· I do not know about FH.
14. When you make a diagnosis of FH in an adult patient (15-year-old or older), do you perform the followings? (More than one item can be selected)· Palpation of Achilles tendon
· X-ray photography of Achilles tendon
· Take a family history of hyper-LDL-cholesterolaemia
· Take a family history of FH
· Take a family history of premature coronary artery diseases
· None of the above
15. Do you think patients with FH have an increased incidence of ischaemic stroke?Yes/No/Uncertain
16. Do you think statins have any adverse effects on renal function?Yes/No/Uncertain
17. Do you think the lowering of LDL cholesterol reduces ASCVD events in patients with CKD?Yes/No/Uncertain
18. If yes, is LDL cholesterol lowering therapy effective for patients with any stage of CKD?Yes/No/Uncertain
19. What do you think is the target LDL cholesterol level for primary prevention of the patients with CKD?< 140 mg/dL (< 3.62 mmol/L)
< 120 mg/dL (< 3.10 mmol/L)
< 100 mg/dL (< 2.6 mmol/L)
< 70 mg/dL (< 1.8 mmol/L)
Medicate without setting the target LDL cholesterol level
20. Do you think the target LDL cholesterol level is different between patients with different CKD stage?Yes/No/Uncertain
21. Do you think there is a clinical benefit to treat CKD patients with hypertriglyceridaemia?Yes/No/Uncertain
22. How do you treat CKD patients with hypertriglyceridaemia?· Use statins
· Use fibrates
· Use nicotinic acid derivatives
· Use n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid
· Manage through lifestyle modification without medications
23. Do you reduce the dose of statins in patients with CKD?Yes/No/Uncertain
  1. aQuestion 1 confirmed eligibility to participate in the survey: i.e. Concerning the patients you examined for the latest one month, please inform us the numbers of the followings
  2. Number of patients with dyslipidaemia
  3. Number of patients with a history of ischaemic stroke
  4. Number of patients with (or with a history of) coronary heart disease
  5. The number of patients you examined
  6. The number of patients receiving drug treatment for dyslipidaemia
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