Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations of dietary linoleic acid with glucose metabolism and liver function markersa,b

From: Associations of linoleic acid with markers of glucose metabolism and liver function in South African adults

  Tertiles of dietary linoleic acid P-trendc β (95% CI) per 1 SD P
T1 T2 T3
Glucose metabolism markers
 Plasma glucose, mmol/L
  Model 1 4.88 (4.73, 5.03) 4.84 (4.69, 4.99) 4.92 (4.77, 5.07) 0.71 0.008 (− 0.010, 0.026) 0.36
  Model 2 4.90 (4.74, 5.06) 4.83 (4.68, 4.98) 4.91 (4.76, 5.06) 0.89 0.007 (− 0.013, 0.026) 0.50
  Model 3 4.90 (4.72, 5.06) 4.83 (4.68, 4.98) 4.91 (4.76, 5.06) 0.93 0.010 (− 0.015, 0.036) 0.43
 HbA1c (%)
  Model 1 5.61 (5.51, 5.70) 5.66 (5.56, 5.76) 5.67 (5.57, 5.77) 0.39 0.004 (−0.006, 0.014) 0.40
  Model 2 5.64 (5.54, 5.74) 5.65 (5.56, 5.75) 5.65 (5.55, 5.75) 0.89 0.001 (− 0.010, 0.011) 0.92
  Model 3 5.60 (5.49, 5.71) 5.65 (5.56, 5.75) 5.68 (5.57, 5.80) 0.36 0.008 (− 0.007, 0.022) 0.30
Liver function markers (subsample, n = 613)
 Serum GGT, U/L
  Model 1 64.8 (57.5, 73.1) 55.6 (49.3, 62.6) 50.2 (44.6, 56.7) 0.004 −0.079 (− 0.149, − 0.010) 0.025
  Model 2 59.3 (52.6, 66.9) 56.4 (50.4, 63.2) 53.9 (48.0, 60.6) 0.28 −0.006 (− 0.076, 0.065) 0.88
  Model 3 65.2 (57.0, 74.5) 57.0 (50.9, 63.7) 48.8 (42.8, 55.6) 0.008 −0.084 (− 0.179, 0.010) 0.08
 Serum ALT, U/L
  Model 1 19.0 (17.6, 20.5) 17.2 (16.0, 18.6) 16.8 (15.6, 18.2) 0.027 −0.030 (− 0.074, 0.014) 0.18
  Model 2 18.5 (17.0, 20.0) 17.4 (16.2, 18.8) 17.1 (15.8, 18.5) 0.21 −0.005 (− 0.053, 0.043) 0.84
  Model 3 19.1 (17.4, 20.9) 17.4 (16.2, 18.8) 16.6 (15.2, 18.1) 0.06 −0.020 (− 0.084, 0.044) 0.54
Serum AST, U/L
  Model 1 29.0 (26.7, 31.5) 26.8 (24.6, 29.1) 26.0 (23.9, 28.3) 0.07 −0.022 (− 0.071, 0.026) 0.36
  Model 2 28.3 (26.0, 30.9) 26.7 (24.6, 28.9) 26.6 (24.5, 28.9) 0.33 0.004 (−0.047, 0.055) 0.88
  Model 3 30.2 (27.4, 33.2) 26.7 (24.6, 28.9) 25.0 (22.8, 27.5) 0.018 −0.041 (− 0.109, 0.027) 0.24
  1. Values for outcome variables in dietary linoleic acid tertiles are geometric means and 95% CI. Values for β (95% CI) are natural log-transformed values;
  2. ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate aminotransferase, GGT Gamma-glutamyl transferase
  3. a One standard deviation of dietary linoleic acid is 3.1 en%;
  4. b Multivariable models: Model 1: adjusted for age, sex; Model 2: model 1 plus education level, locality, smoking status, physical activity, alcohol intake, total energy intake, BMI; Model 3: model 2 plus fiber, available carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids intake;
  5. cP-values for trend were obtained by assigning median value of dietary linoleic acid and and this value was modelled as continuous