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Table 1 Summary of ATMs phenotypes with potential functions in adipose tissues

From: A review on the biology and properties of adipose tissue macrophages involved in adipose tissue physiological and pathophysiological processes

  Stimulus transcription factors Cell surface markers Cytokines Functions
MMe macrophages High levels of glucose, insulin, and palmitate [37] p62
PPARγ [37]
ABCA1
CD36
PLIN2 [37]
IL-6 (NOX2-dependent) [38] Removing dead adipocyte debris [37, 39]
CD9 macrophages   AP-1 subunit JunB
NF-κB subunit p65
CD9
CD16
CD206
IL-1α
IL-18
TNF
Filled with lipids, and secret exosomes [40]
Ly6c macrophages   CTCF [40, 41] CD11b
Ly6c
Factors that support vascular development and organization Regulating adipogenesis process
MFehi macrophages High iron   CD163
Tfrc
Hmox1
ferritin light and heavy chains (Ftl1 and Fth1, respectively)
ceruloplasmin(Cp)
ferroportin-1(Slc40a1)
IL-10 Iron regulation [42, 43]
Antioxidant macrophages (Mox)    • CX3CR1neg F4/80loHO1+Txnrd1 [44]   Predominant ATMs phenotype in lean adipose tissue.
Response to oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) by upregulating Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes [45]. Antioxidant macrophages (Mox) require suppression of regular energy metabolism to produce the antioxidant glutathione [46].
Hybrid M1/M2 macrophages    • CD11c+CD206+ [47]
• F4/80hiCD11c+CD206+ [44]
  ATMs phenotype isolated from obese mice [44].
Macrophages in human visceral adipose    • CD14+CD16+CD36high [48]
• CD14+CD16CD163+
  Proinflammatory macrophages
Anti-inflammatory macrophages
  1. Macrophages with different phenotypes perform diverse functions in adipose tissue. MMe macrophages are driven by high levels of glucose, insulin, and palmitate through the p62 and PPARγ pathways, with surface markers such as ABCA1, CD36 and PLIN2. MMe macrophages secrete cytokines such as IL-6 (NOX2-dependent), performing functions that remove dead adipocyte debris. CD9 macrophages are driven through the AP-1 subunit, JunB, NF-κB and subunit p65 pathways, possess the surface markers CD9, CD16 and CD206, and secrete cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-18 and TNF. Ly6c macrophages are driven through the CTCF pathway, with their cell surface markers CD11b and Ly6c. Ly6c macrophages perform functions that regulate the adipogenesis process. MFehi macrophages are driven by high iron, express CD163, Tfrc, Hmox1, ferritin light and heavy chains (Ftl1 and Fth1, respectively), ceruloplasmin (Cp) and ferroportin-1 (Slc40a1). The cell surface markers of antioxidant macrophages (Mox) are CX3CR1neg and F4/80loHO1+Txnrd1. They are predominant ATM phenotypes in lean adipose tissue and respond to oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) by upregulating Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes. The cell surface markers of hybrid M1/M2 macrophages are F4/80hiCD11c+CD206+. The cell surface markers of macrophages in human visceral adipose are CD14+CD16+CD163high and CD14+CD16CD163+