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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of participants by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol categories

From: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and all-cause mortality rate: findings from a study on Japanese community-dwelling persons

  LDL cholesterol categories (mg/dL)  
  Very Low
(<  5%)
<  70
Low
(5–19%)
70–92
Medium
(20–79%)
93–143
High
(≥ 80%)
≥ 144
 
Characteristics N = 3684 N = 181 N = 555 N = 2212 N = 736 P-value *
Gender (male), % 78.5 59.1 41.6 29.9 <  0.001
Age (years) 59 ± 17 61 ± 15 65 ± 12 65 ± 11 <  0.001
Body mass index categories a, % 10.5/70.7/18.8 7.4/69.9/22.7 4.5/68.4/27.0 3.3/63.5/33.3 <  0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.3 ± 3.3 22.7 ± 3.2 23.3 ± 3.1 23.9 ± 3.3 <  0.001
Smoking habits (non = 1, ex = 2, light = 3, heavy = 4), % 43.6/50.3/1.7/4.4 55.1/35.3/2.5/7.0 68.8/22.7/3.0/5.5 73.6/20.9/2.2/3.3 <  0.001
Drinking habits (non = 1, occasional = 2, light = 3, heavy = 4), % 23.2/22.7/24.9/29.3 37.8/29.5/20.5/12.1 53.3/26.1/12.5/8.0 64.1/22.6/8.7/4.6 <  0.001
History of cardiovascular disease, % 6.1 8.6 8.5 6.7 0.303
Hypertension, % 53.6 52.3 58.1 58.3 0.057
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 ± 20 135 ± 21 138 ± 21 139 ± 22 0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 12 79 ± 12 80 ± 11 81 ± 12 0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia, % 32.0 12.1 16.7 23.0 <  0.001
 Triglyceridemia (mg/dL) 100 (60–179) 81 (61–114) 91 (69–127) 105 (81–145) <  0.001
Low HDL-cholesterolemia, % 9.4 4.9 3.8 4.9 0.004
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 60 ± 19 63 ± 18 63 ± 15 61 ± 15 <  0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, % 6.6 11.0 10.5 6.9 0.011
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 58 ± 9 82 ± 6 118 ± 14 162 ± 18 <  0.001
Diabetes, % 11.0 8.5 9.7 9.4 0.733
 Blood glucose (mg/dL) 97 (89–111) 98 (89–114) 100 (91–114) 103 (92–117) 0.002
Chronic kidney disease, % 11.6 9.0 10.2 10.6 0.712
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 82.9 ± 20.0 80.7 ± 17.4 77.6 ± 16.1 76.2 ± 15.1 <  0.001
Hyperuricemia, % 26.5 15.0 12.5 12.2 <  0.001
 Serum uric acid (mg/dL) 5.8 ± 1.6 5.2 ± 1.5 5.1 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.4 <  0.001
  1. a Body mass index categories: < 18.5 kg/m2, 18.5–25.0 kg/m2, ≥ 25 kg/m2. Data presented are means ± standard deviation. Data for triglycerides and Hemoglobin A1c were skewed and are thus presented as median (interquartile range) values, and were log-transformed for analysis. *P-values are from ANOVA for continuous variables or from the χ2-test for categorical variables. Significant values (P <  0.05) are presented in bold