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Table 5 Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of baseline low density lipoprotein cholesterol categories for all-cause mortality by sub-analysis

From: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol and all-cause mortality rate: findings from a study on Japanese community-dwelling persons

Characteristics
N = 3684
Multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) P-value P for interaction
Very low Low Medium
Gender
 Male (n = 1610) 2.80 (1.53–5.14) 1.84 (1.05–3.22) 0.98 (0.58–1.66) <  0.001 0.039
 Female (n = 2074) 1.42 (0.42–4.74) 1.41 (0.73–2.70) 1.44 (0.94–2.19) 0.407
Body mass index
  < 25 kg/m2 (n = 2681) 2.43 (1.46–4.05) 1.66 (1.07–2.58) 1.02 (0.70–1.48) <  0.001 0.261
  ≥ 25 kg/m2 (n = 1003) 2.36 (0.62–9.04) 1.46 (0.54–3.94) 1.89 (0.94–3.79) 0.308
History of cardiovascular disease
 No (n = 3389) 2.63 (1.59–4.35) 1.62 (1.04–2.50) 1.15 (0.81–1.64) <  0.001 0.907
 Yes (n = 295) 1.64 (0.39–6.93) 3.03 (1.03–8.84) 1.41 (0.52–3.82) 0.099
Hypertension
 No (n = 1583) 3.19 (1.35–7.56) 1.71 (0.80–3.66) 1.32 (0.71–2.45) 0.044 0.705
 Yes (n = 2101) 2.35 (1.33–4.16) 1.80 (1.13–2.88) 1.16 (0.79–1.70) 0.002
Lipid-lowering medication
 No (n = 3327) 2.75 (1.66–4.55) 2.06 (1.35–3.14) 1.31 (0.92–1.86) <  0.001 0.379
 Yes (n = 357) 3.74 (0.91–15.4) 0.31 (0.08–1.17) 0.49 (0.19–1.28) 0.003
Diabetes
 No (n = 3334) 3.32 (2.00–5.52) 1.85 (1.19–2.86) 1.21 (0.84–1.75) <  0.001 0.059
 Yes (n = 350) 0.78 (0.19–3.17) 1.21 (0.45–3.24) 1.04 (0.48–2.27) 0.937
Chronic kidney disease
 No (n = 3310) 1.92 (1.11–3.32) 1.48 (0.96–2.28) 1.04 (0.73–1.47) 0.017 0.015
 Yes (n = 374) 8.69 (2.77–27.3) 4.89 (1.62–14.7) 2.50 (0.94–6.59) <  0.001
Time to death
  < 1095 days (n = 73) Not examined Not examined Not examined Not examined
  ≥ 1095 days (n = 3611) 2.68 (1.67–4.28) 1.74 (1.17–2.59) 1.20 (0.86–1.66) <  0.001
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, LDL cholesterol categories: very low, < 70 mg/dL; low, 70–92 mg/dL; medium, 93–143 mg/dL; high, ≥ 144 mg/dL = Reference
  2. a Multivariate-adjusted HR: adjusted for gender, age, body mass index categories, smoking status, drinking status, history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterolemia, lipid-lowering medication, chronic kidney disease, and hyperuricemia. Significant values (p < 0.05) are presented in bold