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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics of T2DM patients with or without MCI

From: Inverted U-shaped correlation between serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and cognitive functions of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  All individuals (n = 497) MCI (n = 235) Non-MCI (n = 262) P value
Age (year) 60 (53–66) 62 (56–68) 58 (52–64) <0.001b*
Female (n, %) 207 (41.6) 117 (49.8) 90 (34.4) <0.001c*
Education 10 (9–12) 9 (6–12) 12 (9–12) <0.001b*
BMI (Kg/m2) 24.77 (22.77–27.04) 24.57 (22.77–27.12) 24.80 (22.75–26.86) 0.869b
DM Duration (year) 10 (5–14) 10 (5–15) 10 (5–13) 0.352b
HBP Duration (year) 3 (0–10) 5 (0–15) 1 (0–10) 0.006b*
Smoking (n, %) 178 (35.8) 79 (33.6) 99 (37.8) 0.333c
Statins (n, %) 265 (53.3) 133 (56.6) 132 (50.4) 0.166c
Other Antilipidemic Drugs (n, %) 24 (4.8) 15 (6.4) 9 (3.4) 0.126c
HbA1c (%) 8.60 (7.20–10.30) 8.80 (7.50–10.50) 8.40 (7.10–10.10) 0.090b
TG (mmol/l) 1.48 (1.04–2.27) 1.53 (1.00–2.38) 1.48 (1.05–2.18) 0.599b
TC (mmol/l) 4.60 ± 1.15 4.67 ± 1.24 4.54 ± 1.07 0.196a
HDL-C (mmol/l) 1.15 (1.00–1.34) 1.16 (1.01–1.34) 1.15 (0.98–1.32) 0.300b
LDL-C (mmol/l) 2.82 (2.29–3.43) 2.85 (2.23–3.63) 2.81 (2.32–3.24) 0.475b
LDL-C/HDL-C 2.43 (2.00–2.95) 2.43 (1.98–3.03) 2.42 (2.01–2.91) 0.819b
MoCA 26 (23–27) 22 (20–24) 27 (26–28) <0.001b*
DST 12 (10–13) 11 (9–12) 12 (11–14) <0.001b*
VFT 16 (14–19) 15 (13–18) 18 (15–21) <0.001b*
CDT 4 (3–4) 3 (2–4) 4 (3–4) <0.001b*
TMTA 60 (49–83) 71 (57–95) 55 (45–67) <0.001b*
TMTB 160 (123–205) 185 (145–236) 135 (106–178) <0.001b*
  1. Abbreviations: BMI Body mass index, DM Diabetes mellitus, HBP High blood pressure, FPG Fasting plasma glucose, TG Triglycerides, TC Total cholesterol, LDL-C Low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, MoCA Montreal Cognitive Assessment, DST Digit Span Test, VFT Verbal Fluency Test, CDT Clock Drawing Test, TMTA Trail Making Test-A, TMTB Trail Making Test-B, MCI Mild cognitive impairment
  2. The data are presented as n (%), or the median (inter-quartile range) unless otherwise specified
  3. aStudent’s t test was employed for normally distributed variables
  4. bThe Mann-Whitney U test was employed for asymmetrically distributed variables
  5. cThe Chi-square test was employed for categorical variables
  6. *P < 0.05