- Open Access
Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties
© Zarai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 3 July 2012
Accepted: 24 July 2012
Published: 13 August 2012
The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines.
The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test.
The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines.
The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.
Essential oils obtained from aromatic plants have recently gained popularity and scientific interest. Many plants are used for different industrial purposes such as food, drugs, and perfumery manufacturing [1–3]. These compounds possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities . They also do not enhance the “antibiotic resistance”, a phenomenon caused by long-term use of synthetic antibiotics. However, due to an increasing use of herbal products, a special care should be given to their safety, effectiveness, and drug interactions.
The dramatic increase of infectious diseases, especially those caused by microbial contamination of foods, has become, particularly in underdeveloped countries, an urgent priority [5–9]. Accordingly, there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial drugs for their treatment. The use of local medicinal plants for possible antimicrobial and antifungal applications represents a serious promise to satisfy this need. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in essential oils as potential source of natural and safe antioxidants for food industry [5, 6, 9–11].
Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae family) is a soft wooden small tree developed throughout tropics and warm temperature regions. Having an antimicrobial activity, this plant was used to cure different ailments. It also inhibits the mitochondrial respiratory chain reactions . Its leaf, root, and seed oil represent a therapeutic potential including inflammation treatment, liver disorders, hypoglycemic, and laxative [13–15]. In Tunisia, Ricinus communis is used as a contraceptive herbal drug. In addition, it is a traditional folk medicine used in the treatment of warts, cold tumors, and indurations of mammary glands, corns, and moles [16–18]. Previous studies e.g.,  proved the anti-inflammatory and the free radical scavenging activity. It was also reported that the essential oil of this plant possesses a moderate antioxidant activity . However, the antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of R. communis essential oil have not yet been explicitly discussed.
In the present study, we investigated the antibacterial and the antifungal activities of R. communis essential oil against several pathogenic microorganisms. We also studied its antiproliferative properties against HeLa cell lines.
Chemicals, reagents and plant material
Distillation of essential oil and GC/MS analysis conditions
The fresh aerial parts of R. communis (300 g) were hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus to recover the essential oils for 4 h. The distilled essential oils were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and stored at +4°C.
The R. communis essential oil was analyzed using an Agilent-Technologies 6890N Network GC system equipped with a flame ionization detector and HP-5MS capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm, film thickness 0.25 μm; Agilent-Technologies, Little Falls, CA, USA). The injector and detector temperatures were set at 250 and 280°C, respectively. The column temperature was programmed from 35 to 250°C at a rate of 5°C/min, with the lower and upper temperatures being held for 3 and 10 min, respectively. The flow rate of the carrier gas (helium) was 1.0 ml/min. A sample of 1.0 μl was injected, using split mode (split ratio, 1:100). All quantifications were carried out using a built-in data-handling program provided by the manufacturer of the gas chromatograph. The composition was reported as a relative percentage of the total peak area. The identification of the essential oil constituents was based on a comparison of their retention times to n-alkanes, compared to published data and spectra of authentic compounds. Compounds were further identified and authenticated using their mass spectra compared to the Wiley version 7.0 library.
Antimicrobial activity assay
The antimicrobial activity of the R. communis essential oil was investigated against sixteen of pathogenic microbial strains. The test microorganisms used for antimicrobial sensitivity testing including twelve species of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus 1327, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus aureus 25923, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae WHO24, Escherchia coli 25922) and four species of fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger) were used in this study.
Agar diffusion method
The agar diffusion method was used for the determination of antibacterial activities of R. communis essential oil according to the method described by Berghe and Vlietinck (1991) . Prior to analysis, the essential oil was dissolved in absolute ethanol to create final concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and sterilized by filtration trough 0.22 μm Nylon membrane filter. Different concentrations of the R. communis essential oil were used to set a correlation between oil activity and its dose. The bacterial strains were cultured in a nutriment broth for 24 hours. Then, 200 μl of each suspension bacteria (106CFU estimated by absorbance at 600 nm) was spread on Luria Broth agar. Wells were made by using a sterile borer and were loaded with 10 μl of each sample extract. Ampicillin (10 μg/well) was used as positive control. All plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition in millimetres. All experiments were carried out in triplicates.
Determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)
The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was obtained by a broth microdilution method  testing, which was based on reference method M38-P recommended by the NCCLS . The inoculum of each bacterium was prepared and the suspensions were adjusted to 106CFU/ml. Essential oil was dissolved in absolute ethanol. Then, diluted series were prepared in a 96-well plate. Each well of the microplate included 40 μl of the growth medium, 10 μl of inoculums and 50 μl of the diluted sample of oil. The ampicillin and ethanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Plates were then covered with the sterile plate and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Subsequently, 40 μl of 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) at a final concentration 0.5 mg/ml freshly prepared in water was added to each well and incubated for 30 min. The change to red colour indicated that the bacteria are biologically active. The MIC was taken to the well, where no change of colour of MTT was observed. The experiments values were carried out in triplicate.
Antibacterial assay disc-diffusion method
All tests were performed in MHB supplemented with ethanol 5% [24, 25]. Bacterial strains were cultured overnight in MHB at 37°C. Tubes of MHB containing various concentrations of essential oil were inoculated with 10 μl bacterial inoculums adjusted to 106CFU/ml. They were incubated under shaking conditions (100-120 rpm) at 37°C for 24 h [26, 27]. Control tubes without tested samples were simultaneously assayed. The assays were performed in triplicate.
Antifungal assay disc-diffusion method
The biological activity against fungi was determined by employing disc agar diffusion method using Sabouraud Dextrose agar . The R. communis essential oil was deposited on sterile paper discs (6 mm diameter) which were subsequently placed in the centre of the inoculated Petri dishes. After an incubation period of the 24 h at 30°C, the inhibitory activity was compared to that of commercial cycloheximide at a concentration of 1 mg/ml.
Cell lines and culture condition
HeLa cells (cervical cancer line, adherent) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity effect of R. communis essential oil. This cell line were grown in RPMI 1640 medium (Gibco) supplemented with 10% (v/v) foetal calf serum (FCS) and 2 mM L-glutamin in tissue culture flasks (Nunc). They were passed twice a week and kept at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 95% air and 5% CO2.
The proliferation rates of HeLa cells after treatment with R. communis essential oil were determined by the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The yellow compound MTT is reduced by mitochondrial dehydrogenases to the water-insoluble blue compound formazan, depending on the viability of cells.
HeLa cells (4 × 104 in each well) were incubated in 96-well plates for 24 hours in the presence or absence of essential oil. Twenty microlitres MTT solution (Sigma) (5 mg mL-1 in PBS) were added to each well. The plate was incubated for 4 h at 37°C in a CO2-incubator. One hundred and eighty microlitres of medium was removed from every well without disturbing the cell clusters. A 180 μl methanol/DMSO solution (50:50) was added to each well, and the preparations were thoroughly mixed on a plate shaker with the cell containing formazan crystals. After the dissolution of all crystals, the A570 values were determined  with a microplate reader (ELx 800).
Results and discussion
Antibacterial activity of R. communis essential oil, using agar disc diffusion, IC 50 and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC)
Bacterial strains Gram (+)
28.4 ± 0.8
480 ± 1
26 ± 0.6
Staphylococcus aureus 1327
24.0 ± 1.0
290 ± 5
20 ± 0.5
22.6 ± 0.7
390.5 ± 19
21 ± 1.4
16.6 ± 0.7
210 ± 5
22 ± 0.5
15.2 ± 1.0
290 ± 10
25 ± 1.0
Staphylococcus aureus 25923
14.0 ± 1.0
500 ± 20
24 ± 0.5
8.0 ± 0.5
230 ± 5
20 ± 1.5
6.1 ± 0.9
300 ± 10
21 ± 1.0
Bacterial strains Gram (-)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 27853
8.2 ± 0.8
530 ± 10
20 ± 1.0
Klebsiella pneumoniae WHO24
6.2 ± 0.4
652 ± 8
21 ± 0.9
Escherchia coli 25922
4.2 ± 0.9
430 ± 5
22 ± 0.8
4.2 ± 0.6
590 ± 10
29 ± 1.0
Antifungal activity of R. communis essential oil using agar disc diffusion, IC 50 and minimal inhibition concentration methods (MIC)
10.2 ± 0.2
350 ± 20
21 ± 0.9
08.2 ± 0.5
270 ± 30
28 ± 0.6
04.2 ± 0.6
590 ± 10
29 ± 1.0
30 ± 0.5
The MIC and IC50 values of R. communis essential oil on bacteria ranged from 120 μg/ml to 300 μg/ml, and from 210 μg/ml to 870 μg/ml, respectively. Whereas the MIC and IC50 values on fungi ranged from 140 μg/ml to 250 μg/ml and from 350 μg/ml to 590 μg/ml.
Generally, Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram negative bacteria. B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. While, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella and E. coli were the most resistant strain tested against this essential oil. Our results are in good agreement with the findings of Cantore et al. (2004)  who reported that Gram positive bacteria are more sensitive to plant essential oils than Gram negative bacteria, especially E. coli. The resistance of Gram negative bacteria against essential oils has been attributed to the presence of a hydrophilic outer membrane containing a hydrophilic polysaccharide chain, which acts as a barrier hydrophobic essential oil .
Essential oils always represent a complex mixture of different chemical components. Thus, it is very difficult to attribute the antibacterial effect of the total oil to a few active principles. In general, it was also possible that the compounds in lower percentage might be involved in some type of synergism with the active compound .
Cytotoxic effects of R. communis essential oil on HeLa cell line by MTT assay
Essential oil (μg/ml)
% cell viability
Our study confirmed the results reported previously by Kadri et al. , who indicated that the antioxidant activity of R. communis essential oil was efficient when concentrations are less than 0.4 mg/ml. The cytotoxicity of this essential oil was attributed to the presence of α-pinene (16.88%) , and to the synergetic effect between minor and major compounds .
In conclusion, essential oil of R. communis showed significant antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. α-thujone, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, Camphor and camphene were common in the oil as five major compounds. The results suggest that R. communis essential oils possess some compounds with antimicrobial and antiproliferative properties, which can be used as antimicrobial agents in new drugs for treatment of infectious diseases. It is quite difficult to attribute the antimicrobial and the cytotoxic effects of an essential oil to one or a few active principles, because extracts always contain a mixture of different chemical compounds. In addition to the major components, also minor components may make a significant contribution to the biological activity of extracts. Following the results above, we could infer that the antimicrobial and the cytotoxic effects of R. communis essential oil is the synergistic effect of their compositions.
- Heath HB: Source Book of Flavours. 1981, 1-890. Westport: Avi,Google Scholar
- Alim A, Goze I, Cetin A, Atas AD, Vural N, Donmez E: Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Cyclotrichium niveum (Boiss.) Manden. Et Scheng. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2009, 3 (8): 422-425.Google Scholar
- Watson RR, Preedy VR: Botanical Medicine in Clinical Practice. 2008, 165-166. ND: Cabi Publishing,Google Scholar
- Edris AE: Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytoth Res. 2007, 21: 308-323. 10.1002/ptr.2072.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Burt S: Essential oils: their antimicrobial properties and potential application in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004, 94: 223-253. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Celiktas OY, Kocabas EEH, Bedir E, Sukan FV, Ozek T, Baser KHC: Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations. Food Chem. 2006, 100: 553-559.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sokmen M, Serkedjieva J, Daferera D, Gulluce M, Polissiou M, Tepe B, Akpulat HA, Sokmen A: In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens. J Agric Food Chem. 2004, 52: 3309-3312. 10.1021/jf049859gView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sokovic M, Van Griensven LJLD: Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their components against the three major pathogens of the cultivated button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Eur J Plant Pathol. 2006, 116: 211-224. 10.1007/s10658-006-9053-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hussain AI, Anwar F, Sherazi STH, Przybylski R, : Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food Chem. 2008, 108: 986-995. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.12.010.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Simin N, Anackov G: Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oils of some lamiaceae species and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2006, 54: 1822-1828. 10.1021/jf051922uView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kelen M, Tepe B: Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the essential oils of three Salvia species from Turkish flora. Bior Technol. 2008, 99: 096-4104.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferraz A: Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis. Pharmacol Biochem Be. 1999, 63: 367-375. 10.1016/S0091-3057(99)00007-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kirtikar KR, Basu BA: Indian Medicinal Plants. 1991, 2274-2277. 3,Google Scholar
- Dhar ML, Dhar MM, Dhawan BN, Mehrotra BN, Ray C: Screening of Indian plants for biological activity. Part I. Indian J Exp Biol. 1998, 6: 232-247.Google Scholar
- Capasso F, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Gaginella TS: Dissociation of castor oil induced diarrhea and intestinal mucosal injury in rat: effect of NG-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester. B J Pharmacol. 1994, 113: 1127-1130. 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1994.tb17113.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huguet TT: New world material medica in Spanish renaissance medicine from scholarly reception to practical impact. Med Hist. 2001, 45 (3): 359-376.Google Scholar
- Gibbs S, Harvey I, Sterling J, Stark R: Local treatments for cutaneous warts systemic review. BMJ. 2002, 352 (7362): 461-464.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilcox ML, Bodeker G: Traditional herbal medicines for malaria. BMJ. 2004, 329 (7475): 1156-1159. 10.1136/bmj.329.7475.1156View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Ventakaraman S: Anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ricinus communis root extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 103 (3): 478-480. 10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.029View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kadri A, Gharsallah N, Damak M, Gdoura R: Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oil of Ricinus communis L. J Med Plant Res. 2011, 5 (8): 1466-1470.Google Scholar
- Berghe VA, Vlietinck AJ: Screening methods for antibacterial and antiviral agents from higher plants. Method Plant Biochem. 1991, 6: 47-68.Google Scholar
- Wade D, Silveira A, Rollins-Smith L, Bergman T, Silberring J, Lankinen H: Hematological and antifungal properties of temporin A and a cecropin A-temporin A hybrid. Acta Biochim Pol. 2001, 48: 1185-1189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards): Performance standard for antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Proceedings of the ninth International Supplement. 1999, PA100-S9-Wayne: NCCLS,Google Scholar
- May J, Chan CH, King A, Williams L, French GL: Time-kill studies of tea tree oils on clinical solates. J Antimicrob Chemoter. 2000, 45: 639-643. 10.1093/jac/45.5.639.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira A, Proenca AC, Serralheiro CMLM, Araujo MEM: The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 108: 31-37. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.010View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saidana D, Mahjoub MA, Boussaada O, Chriaa J, Cheraif I, Daami-Remadi M, Mighri Z, Helal AN: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile compounds of Tamarix boveana (Tamaricaceae). Microbiol Res. 2008, 163: 445-455. 10.1016/j.micres.2006.07.009View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boussaada O, Ammar S, Saidana D, Chriaa J, Chraif I, Daami-Remadi M, Helal AN, Mighri Z: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of volatile components from capitula and aerial parts of Rhaponticum acaule DC growing wild in Tunisia. Microbiol Res. 2008, 163: 87-95. 10.1016/j.micres.2007.02.010View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Omar-Hamza JM, Carolien JP, Van Den Bout-van Den Beukel , MeckyMatee IN, Paul-Verweij JAME: Antifungal activity of some Tanzanian plants used traditionally for the treatment of fungal infections. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 108: 124-132. 10.1016/j.jep.2006.04.026View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mosmann T: Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods. 1983, 65: 55-63. 10.1016/0022-1759(83)90303-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kalemba D, Kunicka A: Antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils. Curr Med Chem. 2003, 10: 813-29. 10.2174/0929867033457719View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Vincenzi M, Mancini E, Dessi MR: Monographs on botanical avouring substances used in foods. Part V. Fitoterapia. 1996, 67: 241-251.Google Scholar
- Tabanca N, Kirimer N, Demirci B, Demirci F, Baser KHC: Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Micromeria cristata subsp. phrygia and the enantiomeric distribution of borneol. J Agric Food Chem. 2001, 49: 4300-4305. 10.1021/jf0105034View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dorman HJD, Deans SG: Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. J Appl Microbiol. 2000, 88: 308-316. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.00969.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hussain AI, Anwar F, Shahid M, Ashraf M, Przybylski R: Chemical composition, anticoidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) from Pakistan. J Ess Oil Res. 2010, 22: 78-84. 10.1080/10412905.2010.9700269.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Charchari S, Dahoun A, Bachi F, Benslimani A: Antimicrobial activity in vitro of essential oils of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Artemisia judaica L. from Algeria. Riv Ital EPPOS. 1996, 18: 3-8.Google Scholar
- Cimanga K, Kambu K, Tona L, Apers S, De Bruyne T, Hermans N, Totte J, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ: Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002, 79: 213-220. 10.1016/S0378-8741(01)00384-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cantore PL, Iacobellis NS, Marco AD, Capasso F, Senatore F: Antioxidant activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2004, 52: 7862-7866. 10.1021/jf0493122View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kordali S, Cakir A, Mavi A, Kilic H, Yildirim A: Screening of chemical composition and antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from three Turkish Artemisia Species. J Agric Food Chem. 2005, 53: 1408-1416. 10.1021/jf048429nView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shunying Z, Yang Y, Huaidong Y, Yue Y, Guolin Z: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Chrysanthemum indicum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005, 96 (1–2): 151-158.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.