- Open Access
A54T polymorphism in the fatty acid binding protein 2 studies in a Saudi population with type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Khalid Khalaf Alharbi†1,
- Imran Ali Khan†1Email author,
- Mohammad D Bazzi†2,
- Nasser M Al-Daghri3,
- Tarique N Hasan†4,
- May Salem Alnbaheen5, 6,
- Fawiziah Khalaf Alharbi7,
- Yazeed A Al-Sheikh1,
- Rabbani Syed1 and
- Mourad AM Aboul-Soud1
© Alharbi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 15 March 2014
- Accepted: 26 March 2014
- Published: 1 April 2014
Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) is an intracellular protein expressed exclusively in the enterocytes of proximal small intestine. FABP2 has a high affinity for saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids and is believed to be involved in the absorption and transport of dietary fatty acids.
This is a case–control study conceded in 438 T2DM cases and 460 subjects with normal glucose levels and non-obese considered as healthy controls. Allelic discrimination was performed using TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism was carried out by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays using purified DNA.
Clinical data and anthropometric measurements except age, glucose levels and lipid profile of the patients were significantly different from those of the controls (p < 0.05). Statistical analyses failed to show any type of significant association of the polymorphism between cases and controls. However logistic regression analyses was suggests that the TT genotype is significantly associated with male patients (p = 0.001). None of the allele or genotypes of FABP2 A54T was associated with T2DM cases versus the controls (AT genotype, OR = 0.85 (0.64-1.12), p = 0.25; TT genotype, OR = 0.66 (0.39-1.11), p = 0.11; T allele, 0.82 (0.67-1.02), p = 0.08).
In conclusion, this study suggests that the above named variant in FABP2 gene is not potential contributor to the risk of T2DM and related traits in a Saudi population. However TT genotype is a risk factor for the disease in males.
- A54T polymorphism
- FABP2 gene
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Saudi population
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic degenerative disease, phenotypically and genetically characterized by insulin resistance (IR) in insulin-target tissues, and impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells . T2DM affects nearly 31.6% individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . The interaction of genetic and environmental factors is universally acknowledged as the primary underlying T2DM mechanism. The T2DM risk in the first degree relatives of T2DM patients is 3.62 times that in the common population, so the researchers of various countries make great efforts to explore the T2DM susceptible genes. Once the T2DM susceptible genes are sought out, it means that the T2DM prevention clues have been found. It is an effective measure to screen the T2DM susceptible population and prevent T2DM progress. It is now generally considered that T2DM is not a sole disorder, but a multigenic disorder with extensive heredity heterogeneous, categorized by high levels of glucose and metabolic disorders [3, 4]. Obesity is one of the complication for T2DM and the leading cause of preventable deaths and a serious health complications in the Saudi Arabia .
Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) are powerful tools to identify genetic variants that are associated with common diseases. So far, GWAS identified at least 50–52 genetic loci robustly associated with T2DM . Several genetic markers have now been implicated for T2DM development pathways involved in the disease [7, 8]. Fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2) has been studied as one of the marker, due to its role in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and excretion of long chain fatty acids. This gene is located on 4q28-q31 chromosomal region, consist of approximately 3.4 kbs. Many polymorphisms in FABP2 gene have already linked with metabolic phenotypes. The most extensively studies polymorphism was Alanine54threnonine (A54T) substitution at codon 54 of exon 2 that results from G to A nucleotide substitution and affects primary protein structure [9, 10]. This change affects the ability of the protein to transport dietary fatty acids, which may elevate saturated fatty acids level in the serum which might induce endothelial dysfunction leading to increased cardiovascular mortality .
The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of A54T genetic polymorphism identified by Baier et al  in the FABP2 variants to risk of T2DM in a Saudi population, since this polymorphism results in a functionally altered FABP2 protein which confers susceptibility to metabolic disorders like T2DM, thereby to contribute to the personalized prevention of this condition and A54T polymorphism has been associated with T2DM disease in many but not all studies.
Selection of subjects
This is a case–control study carried out in King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this study we have collected in about 900 subjects; 438 T2DM cases and 460 healthy controls from the capital city. All the normal controls were selected from the general population based on normal glucose values and non-obese subjects. The details of the collection of patients, inclusion and exclusion criteria were described in the prior publication . Ethical approval for the study was achieved from the ethics committee, King Saud University. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the patients involved in this study has been described in the prior publication .
DNA extraction and genotyping
5 mL of the venous blood was collected into plain (coagulated) and EDTA (anticoaggulated) tubes. Plain vacutainer consist of 3 mL of the serum sample was used to analyze the biochemical parameters and 2 mL of the EDTA sample was used for molecular analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes using Norgen DNA extraction kit (Norgen Biotek corp, Canada). DNA samples were stored at -80°C. The rs1799883 polymorphism was genotyped using a TaqMan® SNP genotyping assay (Assay ID: C_2834835_10) on a 7300HT sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems, USA). Primers and probes were obtained from Applied Biosystems as Assays-by-Design™. Cases and controls were ensured to have even treatment during the assay procedure, and each plate included negative controls (with no DNA). Plates were read on the ABI Prism 7300 using the Sequence Detection Software (Applied Biosystems) using 40 PCR cycles (92°C denaturation for 15 seconds, 60°C annealing/extension for 60 seconds). Measurements were repeated for samples with failed genotypes. Assays that did not show >95% concordance were discarded and replaced with alternative assays with the same tagging properties.
Demographic characteristics of the study population
Controls (n = 460)
T2DM (n = 438)
45.99 ± 7.77
53.5 ± 10.78
76.61 ± 14.52
77.37 ± 13.55
161.25 ± 8.79
161.10 ± 9.30
Body mass index (kg/m2)
29.22 ± 5.58
29.9 ± 5.89
114.80 ± 8.04
125.83 ± 9.96
75.81 ± 6.20
81.25 ± 4.82
89.75 ± 14.19
95.3 ± 18.96
101.75 ± 14.72
99.64 ± 16.52
5.23 ± 0.61
12.92 ± 4.60
1.62 ± 0.86
2.24 ± 1.62
Cholesterol (mmol/L )
5.04 ± 0.96
5.61 ± 1.26
HDL-C (mmol/L )
0.64 ± 0.23
0.84 ± 0.37
3.66 ± 0.85
3.76 ± 1.05
5.7 ± 1.2
9.4 ± 1.5
12.5 ± 1.8
16.2 ± 2.2
3.15 ± 1.9
6.8 ± 2.4
In this case–control study, we have carried out in almost 900 subjects; 438 patients with T2DM (216 females and 244 males, 45.99±7.77 years old) and 460 normal control subjects (200 female and 238 male, 53.5 ± 10.78 years old). The mean age was 60 years for patients and 59 years for the control group. Clinical and anthropometric data are revealed in Table 1 for T2DM patients and control subjects. The results show that T2DM subjects were significantly older than controls but anthropometric measurements and hip were not significant (p > 0.05). T2DM subjects appear to have higher levels of SBP, DBP, fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and lipid profile and waist (p < 0.05).
Distribution of FABP2 A54T genotypes and alleles of this study
OR (CI = 95%)
1 d. f.
0.66 ( 0.39-1.11)
AA + AT vs TT
TT + AT vs AA
Genotypic distribution according to sex
Calculation for the association of A54T genotypes with T2DM patients and control in male and female sexes
FABP2 is an intracellular protein expressed in the villus tips of the small intestine, has a high affinity for saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acids and is believed to be involved in the absorption and transport of dietary fatty acids . The association between fatty acid metabolism and IR is well known, and the FABP2 gene has been suggested as a possible candidate gene in the development of IR and T2DM . A54T polymorphism in FABP2 was investigated as a possible genetic factor associated with T2DM and Obesity. Studies examining the association of A54T polymorphism with IR, T2DM and Obesity are contradictory and inconclusive . The product of T allele of FABP2 possesses a greater affinity for long-chain FA than the A allele . In addition, individuals with the T allele of this polymorphism were more insulin resistant than were those with the A allele . The T allele was also shown to be associated with higher plasma levels of LDL-C  and dyslipidemia (high plasma concentration of triglycerides and low concentration of HDL-C) . In addition, the T allele of A54T polymorphism has previously been associated with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction in individuals with metabolic syndrome  and a parental history of stroke in the Swedish population . Moreover, it was associated with a 2- to 3.5- fold increase in cardiovascular risk in dyslipidemic men with diabetes compared with their dyslipidemic nondiabetic counterparts . We have now shown that A54T polymorphism was not significantly associated with T2DM, with the minor allele representing the risk factor for this condition.
In the present study we investigated the association of FABP2 A54T polymorphism with T2DM in a Saudi population. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the association of A54T polymorphism in a Saudi population. The frequency of T allele of A54T polymorphism was 0.29 similar to Greek and Caucasian population [21–23]. A54T polymorphism was identified via linkage disequilibrium map, as a haploblock spanning 50 kb that includes 22 SNPs. However, the T54 allele is present in only one of six possibilities among the frequent haplotypes (>2%). It is interesting that in this haploblock, there are no other known or putative genes except for FABP2.
Association Studies of FABP2 A54T gene polymorphism on different ethnic groups
MI + chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease + T2DM
Atherothrombic cerebral infarction
T2DM + microalbminuria
Renal disease + T2DM
Postprandial fatty acids + T2DM
There are several studies denote no association of the T allele with T2DM [27–29] and our study is supporting the above mentioned studies. In some studies, subjects were distributed in homozygous for the A allele (AA) and T allele carriers (AT and TT), mainly because there were only few subjects homozygous for the variant [23, 30]. We observed the association of A54T polymorphism with T2DM according to all possible genetic models (i.e. additive, dominant and recessive). No association of A54T polymorphism was found with T2DM according to any genetic model used, a finding shared by other studies that examined such an association . There are limitations to the study design as it is a case–control observational study rather than cross sectional or prospective study. We have chosen only one SNP (A54T) to study the T2DM disease.
In conclusion, the present study provides no evidence of any association between A54T polymorphism (rs1799883) in FABP2 gene and T2DM, suggesting that A54T polymorphism is not a major risk factor for the T2DM. Overall, this study indicates that A54T polymorphism could not affect directly the presence of T2DM due to the differential absorption of long chain fatty acids in the presence of the T allele. This is the first study finding the interaction between FABP2 and T2DM in Saudi population. Further functional studies as well as well-characterized larger molecular epidemiological studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
The author would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding of this research through the Research Group Project no RGP-VPP-244.
- Alharbi KK, Khan IA, Munshi A, Alharbi FK, Al-Sheikh Y, Al-Nbaheen MS: Association of the genetic variants of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Saudi population. Endocrine. 2014, [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- Al-Attas O, Al-Daghri NM, Alokail M, Abd-Airahman S, Vinodson B, Sabico S: Metabolic benefits of Six-month Thiamine supplementation in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diab. 2014, 7: 1-6.Google Scholar
- Li YY, Wang LS, Lu XZ, Yang ZJ, Wang XM, Zhou CW, Xu J, Qian Y, Chen AL: CDKAL1 gene rs7756992 A/G polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of 62, 567 subjects. Sci Rep. 2013, 4 (3): 3131-Google Scholar
- Shen HB, Shen DB: An epidemiological study on genetic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. China Public Health. 1999, 15: 492-494.Google Scholar
- Al-Daghri NM, Alkharfy KM, Al-Attas OS, Krishnaswamy S, Mohammed AK, Albagha OM, Alenad AM, Chrousos GP, Alokail MS: Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus-related SNP variants and obesity trait in a Saudi population. Mol Bio Rep. 2014, 41: 1731-1740. 10.1007/s11033-014-3022-z.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wilson PW, Meigs JB, Sullivan X, Fox CS, Nathan DM, D’Agostino RB: prediction of incident diabetes mellitus in middle-aged adults: the Framingham offspring study. Arch Intern Med. 2007, 167: 1068-1074. 10.1001/archinte.167.10.1068View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albuquerque D, Nobrega C, Manco L: Association of FTO polymorphisms with obesity and obesity-related outcomes in Portuguese children. PLoS One. 2013, 8 (1): e54370- 10.1371/journal.pone.0054370PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Perry JRB, Vought BF, Yengo L, Amin N, Dupuis J, Ganser M, Grallert H, Navarro P, Li M, Qi L, Steinthorsdottir V, Scott RA, Almgren P, Arking DE, Aulchenko Y, Balkau B, Benediktsson R, Bergman RN, Boerwinkle E, Bonnycastle L, Burtt NP, Campbell H, Charpentier G, Collins FS, Gieger C, Green T, Hadjadj S, Hattersley AT, Herder C, Hofman A: Stratifying type 2 diabetes Cases by BMI identifies genetic risk variants in LAMA1 and enrichment for risk variants in lean compared to obese cases. PLoS Genet. 2012, 8 (5): e1002741- 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002741PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mansego ML, Martinez F, Martinez-Larrad MT, Zabena C, Rojo G, Morcillio S, Soriquer F, Martin-Escudero JC, Serrano-Rios M, Redon J, Chaves FJ: Common variants of the liver fatty acid binding protein gene influences the risk of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance in Spanish population. PLoS One. 2012, 7 (3): e31853- 10.1371/journal.pone.0031853PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tavridou A, Arvanitidis KI, Tiptiri-Kourpeti A, Petridis I, Ragia G, Kyroglou S, Christakidis D, Manolopoulos VG: Tha 54 allele of fatty acid binding protein 2 gene is associated with obesity but not type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Caucasian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009, 84: 132-137. 10.1016/j.diabres.2009.02.022View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freathy RM, Mook-Kanamori DO, Sovio U, Prokopenko I, Timpson NJ, Berry DJ, Warrington NM, Widen E, Hottenga JJ, Kaakinen M, Lange LA, Bradfield JP, Kerkhof M, Marsh JA, Magi R, Chen CM, Lyon HN, Kirin M, Adair LS, Aulchenko YS, Bennett AJ, Borja JB, Bouatia-Naji N, Charoen P, Coin LJ, Cousminer DL, de Geus EJ, Deloukas P, Elliott P, McCarthy MI, : Variants in ADCY5 and near CCNL1 are associated with fetal growth and birth weight. Nat Genet. 2010, 42: 430-435. 10.1038/ng.567PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baier LJ, Sacchettini JC, Knowler WC, Eads J, Paolisso G, Tataranni PA, Mochizuki H, Bennett PH, Bogardus C, Prochazaka M: An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 1995, 95: 1281-1287. 10.1172/JCI117778PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Albala C, Villaroel A, Santos JL, Angel B, Lera L, Liberman C, Sanchez H, Perez-Bravo F: FABPS Ala54Thr polymorphism and diabetes in Chilean elders. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007, 77: 245-250. 10.1016/j.diabres.2006.12.006View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhao T, Zhao J, Yang W: Association of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with insulin related and blood glucose: a meta-analysis in 13451 subjects. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2010, 26: 357-364. 10.1002/dmrr.1085View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lowe JB, Sacchettini JC, Laposata M, McQuillan JJ, Gordon JI: Expression of rat intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in Escherichia coli: purification and comparison of ligand binding characteristics with that of Escherichia coli-derived rat liver fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1987, 262: 5931-5937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada K, Yuan X, Ishiyama S, Koyama K, Ichikawa F, Koyanagi A, Koyama W, Nonaka K: Association between Ala54Thr substitution of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene with insulin resistance and intra-abdominal fat thickness in Japanese men. Diabetologia. 1997, 40: 706-710. 10.1007/s001250050737View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Galluzzi JR, Cupples LA, Otvos JD, Wilson PW, Schaefer EJ, Ordovas JM: Association of the A/T54 polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein with variations in plasma lipids in the Framingham Offspring Study. Atherosclerosis. 2001, 159: 417-424. 10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00517-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guettier JM, Georgopoulos A, Tsai MY, Radha V, Shanthirani S, Deepa R, Gross M, Rao G, Mohan V: Polymorphisms in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 and apolipoprotein C-III genes are associated with the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia in a South Indian population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005, 90: 1705-1711. 10.1210/jc.2004-1338View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada Y, Kato K, Oguri M, Yoshida T, Yokoi K, Watanabe S, Metoki N, Yoshida H, Satoh K, Ichihara S, Aoyagi Y, Yasunaga A, Park H, Tanaka M, Nozawa Y: Association of genetic variants with atherothrombotic cerebral infarction in Japanese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Int J Mol Med. 2008, 21: 801-188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carlsson M, Orho-Melander M, Hedenbro J, Almgren P, Groop LC: The T 54 allele of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 is associated with a parental history of stroke. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000, 85: 2801-2804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sipilainen R, Uusitupa M, Heikkinen S, Rissanen A, Laakso M: Variants in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene in obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997, 82: 2629-2632. 10.1210/jcem.82.8.4179View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fisher E, Li Y, Burwinkel B, Kuhr V, Hoffman K, Mohlig M, Spranqer J, Pfeiffer A, Boeing H, Schrezenmeir J, Doring F: Preliminary evidence of FABP2 A54T polymorphism associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity in women from a German cohort. Horm Metab Res. 2006, 38: 341-345. 10.1055/s-2006-925400View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pihlajamaki J, Rissanen J, Heikkinen S, Karjalainen L, Laakso M: Codon 54 polymorphism of the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 gene is associated with dyslipidemias but not with insulin resistance in patients with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997, 17: 1039-1044. 10.1161/01.ATV.17.6.1039View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuomi T, Carlsson A, Li H, Isomaa B, Miettinen A, Nilsson A, Nissen M, Ehrnstrom BO, Forsen B, Snickars B, Lahti K, Forsblom C, Saloranta C, Taskinen MR, Groop LC: Clinical and genetic characteristics of type 2 diabetes with and without GAD antibodies. Diabetes. 1999, 48: 150-157. 10.2337/diabetes.48.1.150View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ohrvall M, Berglund L, Salminen I, Lithell H, Aro A, Vessby B: The serum cholesterol ester fatty acid composition but not the serum concentration of alpha tocopherol predicts the development of myocardial infarction in 50-year-old men: 19 years follow-up. Atherosclerosis. 1996, 127: 65-71. 10.1016/S0021-9150(96)05936-9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Canani LH, Capp C, Ng DP, Choo SG, Maia AL, Nabinger GB, Santos K, Crispim D, Roisemberg I, Krolewski AS, Gross JL: The fatty acid-binding protein-2 A54T polymorphism is associated with renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2005, 54: 3326-3330. 10.2337/diabetes.54.11.3326View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lei HH, Coresh J, Shuldiner AR, Boerwinkle E, Brancati FL: Variants of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and fatty acid binding protein 2 genes and the risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia in African-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Diabetes. 1999, 48: 1868-1872. 10.2337/diabetes.48.9.1868View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito K, Nakatani K, Fujii M, Katsuki A, Tsuchihashi K, Murala K, Goto H, Yano Y, Gabazza EC, Sumida Y, Adachi Y: Codon 54 polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein gene and insulin resistance in the Japanese population. Diabetes Med. 1999, 16: 119-124. 10.1046/j.1464-5491.1999.00034.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rissanen J, Pihlajamaki J, Heikkinen S, Kekalainen P, Kuusisto J, Laakso M: The Ala54Thr polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene does not influence insulin sensitivity in Finnish nondiabetic and NIDDM subjects. Diabetes. 1997, 46: 711-712. 10.2337/diab.46.4.711View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chiu KC, Chuang LM, Yoon C: The A54T polymorphism at the intestinal fatty acid binding protein 2 is associated with insulin resistance in glucose tolerant Caucasians. BMC Genet. 2001, 2: 7-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weiss EP, Brown MD, Shuldiner AR, Hagberg JM: Fatty acid binding protein-2 gene variants and insulin resistance: gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Physiol Genom. 2002, 10: 145-157.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.