- Short Report
- Open Access
Severe Hypertriglyceridemia due to a novel p.Q240H mutation in the Lipoprotein Lipase gene
© Soto et al. 2015
Received: 3 August 2015
Accepted: 26 August 2015
Published: 4 September 2015
Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Several mutations in the LPL gene have been identified to cause decreased activity of the enzyme.
An 11-week-old, exclusively breastfed male presented with coffee-ground emesis, melena, xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and chylomicronemia. Genomic DNA analysis identified lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity including a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. His severe hypertriglyceridemia, including xanthomas, resolved with dietary long-chain fat restriction.
We describe a novel mutation of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and report the response to treatment. A review of the current literature regarding LPL deficiency syndrome reveals a few potential new therapies under investigation.
Exogenous lipid metabolism involves packaging of dietary fat into chylomicrons in the small intestine, which are later transported to the bloodstream. The initial step of endogenous lipid metabolism involves the hydrolysis of chylomicrons by lipoprotein lipase (LPL) . LPL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 1,000,000 in the United States and higher in other world regions, like Quebec, Canada due to a founder effect . The clinical presentation can include moderate or severe hypertriglyceridemia in affected homozygotes or compound heterozygotes, while simple heterozygote carriers often have normal lipids . Clinical features include eruptive xanthomas, abdominal pain, hepato-splenomegaly, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, recurrent pancreatitis, or lipemia retinalis . Dietary fat restriction is the cornerstone of treatment, and gene therapy trials are ongoing .
Plasma lipid levels of the proband at baseline and after 1 month of dietary fat restriction, and both parents
After dietary change
Unable to measure
Unable to measure
Ethics, consent and permission:Approval was obtained from the Western University Ethics Review Board protocol 07920E and informed consent was obtained from both parents. The parents gave their consent to publish this case.
Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood using Puregene DNA isolation kit (Gentra Systems, QIAGEN Inc, Mississauga, ON, Canada). PCR amplifications were performed using primers covering the coding regions and ~100 bp of intron-exon boundaries of the LPL gene as described previously . Bi-directional Sanger sequencing was performed using established conditions  on an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). DNA sequences were analyzed using SeqScape v2.6 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).
Results and discussion
LPL plays a role in multiple stages of lipid metabolism, including hydrolysis of chylomicrons. LPL is primarily synthesized by myocytes and adipocytes and recent studies have identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) as the molecule responsible for transporting LPL to the capillary lumen . LPL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by decreased LPL activity due to mutations in the LPL gene . The LPL gene is located on chromosome 8p21.3 and contains 10 exons, spanning ~ 30 kb and encodes a mature protein of 448 amino acids . Most mutations are found in exons 4, 5 and 6 and although missense mutations are more common, nonsense, frameshift, insertion, deletion and duplication mutations have also been described . The mutation in this patient expands the spectrum of known pathogenic LPL mutations to more than 150. It also occurs in a region of the protein that has to date been relatively bereft of reported mutations. The involvement of amino acid residue 240 also highlights the functional importance of the local domain in lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
To date, genotype-phenotype correlations have not been identified [2, 10]. Patients who are homozygous or compound heterozygotes can present with marked hypertriglyceridemia. Heterozygote patients can have normal or mildly elevated TG levels . Both parents of our patient are heterozygous carriers of LPL gene mutations and had normal lipids.
The clinical manifestations of LPL deficiency are heterogeneous. Eruptive xanthomas appear mostly on shoulders, buttocks and extensor surfaces of the limbs when the TG levels exceed 2000 mg/dl . Lipemia retinalis involving the peripheral vessels can be seen with TG levels over 2,500 mg/dl and as the levels increase, the damage extends to the posterior pole . Abdominal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage have been attributed to hyperviscosity secondary to elevated TG . Pancreatitis is common in these patients and risk increases with TG levels over 1,000 mg/dl . Therefore, the goal of therapy is to decrease TG levels < 1,000 mg/dl .
Dietary restriction remains the cornerstone of treatment and fat supplements using MCT are useful since they are absorbed directly into the portal vein . Long-term data on patients with LPL deficiency are limited but show normal linear growth and puberty despite dietary fat restriction . Even with recurrent pancreatitis, this population does not demonstrate a high mortality rate . Satisfactory TG levels can be difficult to achieve with diet restriction alone. Drug therapy using gemfibrozil, omega-3 fatty acids and orlistat may decrease TG levels when combined with a fat-restricted diet however, the use of these drugs is controversial [3, 17, 18]. Therapy involving intramuscular introduction of a gain-of-function variant of the LPL gene is approved in Europe, although is costly and has only a transient effect . A promising treatment approach currently under investigation is orally-administered diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors targeting DGAT1, which mediates triglyceride synthesis during dietary fat absorption .
Our patient is a compound heterozygote who has a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia. Although his TG levels are much improved with MCT-based formula, the challenge will be maintaining those levels with dietary fat restriction as table foods are introduced and he grows through childhood.
We thank Dr. Chanika Phornphutkul for her assistance with genetic testing.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Evans V, Kastelein JJ. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency--rare or common? Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2002;16:283–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brunzell JD. Familial Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency. 1999 Oct 12 [Updated 2014 Apr 24]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2014. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.gov/books/nbk1308/?report=reader
- Rahalkar AR, Giffen F, Har B, Ho J, Morrison KM, Hill J, et al. Novel LPL mutations associated with lipoprotein lipase deficiency: two case reports and a literature review. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:151–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Feoli-Fonseca JC, Lévy E, Godard M, Lambert M. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency in infancy: clinical, biochemical, and molecular study. J Pediatr. 1998;133:417–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gaudet D, Methot J, Kastelein J. Gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012;23:310–20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Emi M, Wilson DE, Iverius PH, Wu L, Hata A, Hegele R, et al. Missense mutation (Gly----Glu188) of human lipoprotein lipase imparting functional deficiency. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:5910–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davies BS, Beigneux AP, Fong LG, Young SG. New wrinkles in lipoprotein lipase biology. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2012;23:35–42.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wion KL, Kirchgessner TG, Lusis AJ, Schotz MC, Lawn RM. Human lipoprotein lipase complementary DNA sequence. Science. 1987;235:1638–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen TZ, Xie SL, Jin R, Huang ZM. A novel lipoprotein lipase gene missense mutation in Chinese patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:52.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mailly F, Palmen J, Muller DP, Gibbs T, Lloyd J, Brunzell J, et al. Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency: a catalogue of LPL gene mutations identified in 20 patients from the UK, Sweden, and Italy. Hum Mutat. 1997;10:465–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mohandas MK, Jemila J, Ajith Krishnan AS, George TT. Familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Indian J Pediatr. 2005;72:181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zahavi A, Snir M, Kella YR. Lipemia retinalis: case report and review of the literature. J AAPOS. 2013;17(1):110–1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenson RS, Shott S, Tangney CC. Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with an elevated blood viscosity Rosenson. Atherosclerosis. 2002;161:433–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yuan G, Al-Shali KZ, Hegele RA. Hypertriglyceridemia: its etiology, effects and treatment. CMAJ. 2007;176:1113–20.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Santamarina-Fojo S. The familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1998;27:551–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kawashiri MA, Higashikata T, Mizuno M, Takata M, Katsuda S, Miwa K, et al. Long-term course of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency due to homozygous LPL(Arita) in a patient with recurrent pancreatitis, retained glucose tolerance, and atherosclerosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:6541–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ellis D, Orchard TJ, Lombardozzi S, Yunis EJ, McCauley J, Agostini R, et al. Atypical hyperlipidemia and nephropathy associated with apolipoprotein E homozygosity. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995;6:1170–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Blackett P, Tryggestad J, Krishnan S, Li S, Xu W, Alaupovic P, et al. Lipoprotein abnormalities in compound heterozygous lipoprotein lipase deficiency after treatment with a low-fat diet and orlistat. J Clin Lipidol. 2013;7:132–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- DeVita RJ, Pinto S. Current status of the research and development of diacylglcerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors. J Med Chem. 2013;56:9820–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar