- Open Access
Promising features of Moringa oleifera oil: recent updates and perspectives
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 1 November 2016
Accepted: 17 November 2016
Published: 8 December 2016
Lipids are the concentrated source of energy, fat soluble vitamins, essential fatty acids, carriers of flavours and many bio-active compounds with important role in maintaining physiological functions of biological body. Moringa oleifera is native to Himalaya and widely grown in many Asian and African countries with seed oil content range from 35–40%. Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) has light yellow colour with mild nutty flavour and fatty acids composition suggests that MOO is highly suitable for both edible and non-edible applications. MOO is extremely resistant to autoxidation which can be used as an antioxidant for the long term stabilization of commercial edible oils. Thermal stability of MOO is greater than soybean, sunflower, canola and cottonseed oils. High oleic contents of MOO are believed to have the capability of increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol and decreased the serum cholesterol and triglycerides. MOO applications have also been explored in cosmetics, folk medicines and skin care formulations. Overall, this review focuses on commercial production status, food applications, antioxidant characteristics, health benefits, thermal stability, fractionation, cholesterol contents, medicinal, nutraceutical action, toxicological evaluation, biodiesel production, personal care formulations and future perspectives of the MOO for the stake holders to process and utilize MOO as a new source of edible oil for industrial purpose.
Oil content of Moringa oleifera oil and some vegetable oils
Fatty acid profile of Moringa oleifera oil and some vegetable oils
Comparison of chemical characteristics of Moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils
1.0 + 10
3.5 + 35
3.2 + 33
1.3 + 13
1.2 + 12
1.0 + 10
Commercial production status
The situation of food insecurity is getting worst day by day, in future, feeding of ever increasing human population perhaps would be the most difficult task. On the other hand, resources of foods are drying. According to an estimate, about 2 billion humans will be added to the population of Asia and Africa . In addition to other nutritional requirements, fats and oils must be consumed in sufficient concentration to fulfil the body’s requirements . Natures has gifted about 500,000 edible oil producing plants, it is worth mentioning that only 12 are being utilized for commercial production and processing. In view of the existing situation of food insecurity in the third world countries, new sources of edible oils must be discovered. Moringa oleifera (Drum Stick) is extensively grown in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Africa . Soybean, sunflower, cottonseeds are the leading oilseeds. Oil content of soybean and cottonseed are about 18–20%, with such moderate oil content. If soybean oil can become the leading source of edible oil, then how a plant (Moringa oleifera) with 40% good quality oil content cannot become the commercial source of edible oil. Moringa oleifera produces 3000 kg seed from 1 ha that can produce 1200 kg edible oil, as compared to soybean which produce 350–400 kg oil from 1 ha . Due to lack of awareness, it is not commercially grown as an oilseed. India has adopted a wise strategy and started the commercial production of MOO, currently, 1.3 M. Ton of edible oil is annually extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera, with 380 KM2 area of production . The cost of production of oil from Moringa oleifera is low as compared to other sources of edible oils, the unreferenced source revealed that cost of 1 kg seed is 0.15$. In addition to low cost and higher oil content, oil has better functional properties over soybean, sunflower, canola, corn oils, they need partial hydrogenation for improved functional properties, whereas, MOO does not require partial hydrogenation. It can also be converted into olein and stearin fractions, which only have better functional properties but can also serve as superior alternates of partially hydrogenated fats. Further it contains about 5–6% behenic acid, which act as crystallizing agent . In subcontinent, crystallized vanaspati is preferred over pasty stuff andapplication of MOO in vanaspati can improve its graininess and crystallization behaviour. Oil production potential of Moringa oleifera was assessed in arid climate of Chaco South Africa, on average basis; it produced 481.25 Kg edible oil from one acre, desert conditions did not have significant effect on the seed production and oil content . Commercial oilseeds require good quality soil with plenty of water, adequate fertilization and other expensive agronomic practices, whereas, Moringa tree can be grown in poor quality sandy, salt affected soils and it can resist long spells of drought with no effect on oil yield. The results of another investigation conducted in Argentina disclosed that Moringa oleifera trees produced 595 kg oil/acre in drought conditions .
Food applications and antioxidant characteristics
Sterols of Moringa oleifera oil and some vegetable oils mg/100 g
Tocopherol contents of Moringa oleifera oil and some vegetable oils
Moringa oleifera oil
Virgin Olive Oil
Watermelon Seed Oil
Mango Kernel Oil
Total phenolic contents of Moringa oleifera oil, vegetable oils and extracts
The demand and production of monounsaturated oils is mounting across the globe and large number of health benefits and superior oxidative stability of monounsaturated oils has increased their application in large number of foods . Oleic acid (cis-9-octadecanoic acid) possesses a cholesterol lowering properties . Olive oil, canola oil, peanut and rapeseed oil are regarded as the rich source of oleic acid, which varies from 50 to 80% . Dietary guidelines suggest that oleic acid should be the part of regular diet to minimize the risk of cardiovascular diseases . Concentration of oleic acid has been increased in some oilseeds through genetic modifications, e.g. high oleic acid sunflower oil and canola oil . Monounsaturated oils do not require partial hydrogenation for better shelf stability. Consumption of partially hydrogenated fats has been correlated with the development of cardiovascular diseases . High oleic acid fraction of MOO has been developed by enzymatic transesterification and fraction . With greater than 80% oleic acid, high oleic acid fraction may be appropriately regarded as power house of oleic acid . Oleic acid also act as a precursor of omega-9 fatty acids, human body has the capability to convert C18:1 to omega-9 fatty acids.
Cholesterol is a steroid, waxy metabolite, belongs to the unsaponifiable matter of lipids. It is insoluble in the aqueous/watery phase of blood, transported in the body through specialized proteins to various parts of the body . LDL carries cholesterol from liver to the peripheral tissues, LDL has been designated as bad cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL) transport cholesterol back from the peripheral tissues to the liver and regarded as beneficial cholesterol . The ratios of LDL to HDL, concentration of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides exceeding 5, 200, 150 and 150 and HDL lower than 35 mg/dL, respectively is associated with enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease. Intake of dietary cholesterol should not exceed 300 mg/day . Dairy products e.g. cheese, cream, butter, butter oil etc. For example, 219, 110, 105 mg/100 g cholesterol is present in butter, cheese and ice cream, respectively . MOO does not cholesterol, blending of butter oil with MOO significantly decreased the concentration of dietary cholesterol .
Rahamn et al.  fractionated MOO into olein and stearin fractions through dry crystallization technique, fatty acid composition of olein fraction revealed the magnitude of oleic acid of oleic acid was greater than 80%. The effect of MOO on the crystallization behaviour of palm oil was investigated and MOO was incorporated into palm oil at 20% concentration. Fractionation was performed by solvent and dry crystallization techniques at 18 and 21 °C and the yield of olein fraction obtained via solvent fractionation was greater than dry crystallization. GC analysis of the liquid fractions revealed that the intensification of oleic acid and triolein. Remarkable differences were noted in the melting characteristics of olein and stearin fractions obtained by two different fractionation methods. MOO stearin has higher melting point and may be used as an alternated of chocolate fat/confectionary fat and bakery shortening, however, theses aspects needs intensive research work . After the rearrangement of esters, melting point of MOO increased from 19.8 °C to 35.2 °C . MOO was transesterified with lipases meihei followed by fractionation. Fatty acid composition, solid fat index of olein and stearin fraction was considerably different from the parent MOO, olein fraction remained clear at 2 °C, with no haziness, offering a great perspective for usage as salad/oil/cooking oil/mayonnaise oil etc. .
Medicinal and nutraceutical action
The impact of MOO centred feed on growth performance, packed cell volume, haemoglobin, white blood cells, monocytes, lipid profile, urea, creatine were determined in albino rats. Three weeks old, 12 albino rats were randomly stratified in two groups, each group was comprised of 6 rats, the average weight ranged from 31.6 to 35 g. The group of rats fed on soybean oil was used as control, while, the second group was fed on MOO, experiment lasted for six weeks. After six weeks, blood samples of both the groups were tested for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride. Body weight, creatine, urea concentration and haematological parameters of both the groups were not significantly different. These results evidenced that MOO improved the growth performance and had a positive immune stimulatory impact on the growth of albino rats, with neutraceutical effect and no risk of cardiovascular disease .
Moringa seeds produce 30–40% good quality oil, which is high in oleic acid. The quality of MOO is superior to sunflower oil and scientific evidences have shown that biodiesel prepared from MOO was superior to biodiesel made from other substrates . The methyl esters of biodiesel prepared from MOO was 67, which is the highest for a biodiesel fuel. About 2000 l biodiesel can be produced from one hectare and production of biodiesel can be started after one year of the plantation, as tree bears fruit within one year of the cultivation . The biodiesel derived from MOO has higher iodine value as compared to conventional diesel fuels, which indicates that MOO based biodiesel has better stability . With higher octane number, it has higher ignition performance and cold filter plugging point, showing better ignition performance in winter as well. The recovery and quality of biodiesel from MOO is higher as compared to other crops with the recovery of top grade glycerine as by-product. MOO is a better sustainable source of biodiesel than other plants e.g. Jatropha, as Moringa is cultivated primarily for food [47, 48]. 30 days old Moringa plants were milled to mesh size 5, followed by the separation of liquid fraction from solid mass through filtration. The liquid was transferred to gas reactor. 1 kg volatile solids produced 580 L of gas, with 81% methane content .
Personal care formulations
The major fatty acid in MOO is oleic acid, which is widely recommended in the preparation of pharmaceutical ointments. It has high cosmetic value, helps to remove dirt from the skin and is considered as superb cleansing agent. It has non-drying characteristics, can be easily blended with other essential oils; these properties make moringa oil as excellent massage oil. Oil can be used in the preparation of different types of soaps, cosmetic cream and lip balm. MOO based soaps has stable lather with better cleansing perspectives . MOO has been the part of folk medicines since thousands of years; oil was used as perfume and skin lotion by the Egyptian, Roman and Greek communities . Egyptians used MOO in the treatment of skin disorders, as smoothing, moisturizing and oiling agent for the treatment of dry skin and therapeutic massages. It has the capability of absorbing and retaining the flavouring compounds . Currently MOO is widely used in the formulations of body creams, lotions, balms, scrubs and anti-hair fall formulations. In cosmetics, it is preferred over other oil as it does not leave greasy after feel .
MOO can be sued in the formulation of vanaspati, margarine, bakery shortening, salad oil, cooking oil, frying of potato chips, frying fats in industry and restaurants while stearin fractions can be used as bakery fat.
The authors are highly obliged to the Library Department, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF), University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS) and IT Department, Higher Education Commission (HEC, Islamabad) for access to journals, books and valuable database.
Availability of data and materials
The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article.
MN conceptualized, provided the technical assistance and guided in the data collection. MI helped for drafting the manuscript. “It’s also confirmed that all the authors read and approved the final manuscript”.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Potter NW, Hotchkis J. Food Science. 5th edition. New York: AVI Publishing Co. Inc; 1998. p. 264.Google Scholar
- Campbell-Platt G. Food Science and Technology. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009. p. 520.Google Scholar
- Anwar F, Bhanger MI, Yasmeen S. Antioxidant activity of some natural extracts in corn oil. In: Murata N, Yamada M, Nishida I, Okuyama H, Sekiya J, Hajime W, editors. Advanced research of plant lipids. Netherlands: Kluwer Publishers; 2003. p. 24.Google Scholar
- Abdulkarim SM, Lai OM, Muhammad SKS, Long K, Ghazali HM. Oleic acid enhancement of Moringa oleifera seed oil by enzymatic transesterification and fractionation. Asean Food J. 2007;14:91–102.Google Scholar
- Lalas S, Tsaknis J. Extraction and identification of natural antioxidants from the seeds of Moringa oleifera tree variety of Malavi. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2002;79:677–83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mohammed AS, LAI OM, Muhammad SKS, Long K, Ghazali HM. Moringa oleifera, Potentially a New Source of Oleic Acid-type Oil for Malaysia. Investing in innovation.Google Scholar
- Siddhuraju P, Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agro climatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam). J Agri Food Chem. 2003;54:2144–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anwar F, Bhanger MI. Analytical characterization of Moringa oleifera seed oil grown in temperate regions of Pakistan. J Agr Food Chem. 2003;51:6558–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abdulkarim SM, Long K, Lai OM, Muhammad SKS, Ghazali HM. Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic method. Food Chem. 2005;93:253–63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abdulkarim SM, Long K, Lai OM, Muhammad SKS, Ghazali HM. Use of enzymes to enhance oil recovery during aqueous extraction of Moringa oleifera seed oil. J Food Lipids. 2006;13:113–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Corbett P. It is time for an oil change! Opportunities for high-oleic vegetables oils. Inform. 2003;14:480–1.Google Scholar
- Vlahov G, Chepkwony PK, Ndalut PK. NMR characterization of triacylglycerols of Moringa oleifera seed oil: an “oleic-vaccenic acid” oil. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:970–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rahman F, Nadeem M, Azeem MW, Zahoor Y. Comparison of the chemical characteristics of high oleic fraction of Moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils. Pak J Anal Environ Chem. 2014;15:80–3.Google Scholar
- FAO. The state of food insecurity in the world. 2015. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4646e.pdf. Accessed on 8 June 2016.
- O’Brien RD. Fats and oils: formulating and processing for applications. 3rd edition. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2008. p. 143.Google Scholar
- Rajangam J, Azahakia Manavalan RS, Thangaraj T, Vijayakumar A, Muthukrishan N. Status of production and utilisation of moringa in southern India. 2001. www.moringanews.org/actes/rajangam_en.doc. Accessed on 15 Apr 2014.
- Ayerza R. Seed and oil yields of Moringa oleifera variety Periyakalum-1 introduced for oil production in four ecosystems of South America. Industrial Crops Prod. 2012;36:70–3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ayerza R. Seed’s yield components, oil content, and fatty acid composition of two populations of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) growing in the Arid Chaco of Argentina. Ind Crops Prod. 2011;33:389–94.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Anwar F, Qayyum HMA, Hussain AI, Iqbal S. Antioxidant activity of 100 and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil. Grasas y Aceit. 2010;61:237–43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nadeem M, Abdullah M, Javid A, Mahmood T. Evaluation of functional Fat from interesterified blends of butter oil and Moringa oleifera oil. Pak J Nutr. 2012;11:725–9.Google Scholar
- Nadeem M, Hussain I, Abdullah M. Improvement of the oxidative Stability of Butter Oil by Blending with Moringa oleifera Oil. J Food Proc Preserv. 2013;doi:10.1111/jfpp.12108.
- Nadeem M, Situ C, Mahmud A, Khalique A, Imran M, Rahman F, Khan S. The effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cake extract for oxidative stabilization of olein based butter. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2014; doi:10.1007/s11746-014-2432-3.
- Tsaknis J, Lalas S, Gergis V, Dourtoglou V, Spiliotis V. A total characterization of Moringa oleifera Malawi seed oil. Riv Ital Sostanza Grasse. 1998;75:21–7.Google Scholar
- Warra AA. Cosmetic potentials of African Shea nut (vitellaria paradoxa) butter. Curr Res Chem. 2011;3:80–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dollah S, Abdulkarim SM, Ahmad SH, Khoramnia AK, Ghazali MH. Physico-chemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils. Journal of Oleo Sci. 2014;DOI: 10.5650/JOS.ess 13235.
- Kumar NA, Pari L. Antioxidant action of moringa oleifera lam. (drumstick) against antitubercular drugs induced lipid peroxidation in rats. J Med Food. 2003;6:255–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lokuruka MNI. Role of fatty acids of milk and dairy products in cardiovascular diseases: a review. Afr. J Food Agri Nutr Dev. 2007;7(1):45–59.Google Scholar
- Lee YW, Kim JD, Zheng J, Row KH. Comparisons of isoflavones from Korean and Chinese soybean and processed products. J Biochem Eng. 2007;36:49–53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mensink RP, Katan MB. Effect of dietary trans-fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects. J Clinical Nutr. 1990;323:439–45.Google Scholar
- Ogunsina BS, Indira TN, Bhatnagar AS, Radha C, Debnath S, Gopala Krishna AG. Quality characteristics and stability of Moringa oleifera seed oil of Indian origin. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;51(3):503–10. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0519-5.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jensen RG. Fatty acids in milk and dairy products. In: Chow CK, editor. Fatty acids in foods and their health implications. 2nd ed. New York and Basel: Marcel Dekker; 2002. p. 109–24.Google Scholar
- American Heart Association. Heart and stroke encyclopedia. Dietary guidelines for healthy American adults. 2008. Retrieved from http://www.americanheart.org. Accessed on 30 Aug 2015.
- American Heart Association. Heart Disease and stroke. You are the cure. Washington, USA; 2009. Found at: http://www.americanheart.org/.
- Kwak HS, Ahn J. Optimization cholesterol removal in cream using beta cyclodextrin response surface methodology. J Food Sci. 1999;64:629–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Marikkar JMN, Ghazali HM. Effect of Moringa oleifera oil blending on fractional crystallization behavior of palm oil. Int J Food Prop. 2011;14(5):1049–59.Google Scholar
- Pauwels EK. The protective effect of the Mediterranean diet. Focus on cancer and cardiovascular risk. Med Princ Pract. 2011;20(2):103–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singha R. Advantages of moringa oil. Retrieved from www.buzzle.com/articles/moringa oil.html. Accessed on 30 Dec 2010.
- Parrotta JA. Healing plants of peninsular India. Wallingford and New York: Cabl Publishing; 2001.Google Scholar
- Ojiako EN, Okeke CC. Determination of antioxidant of Moringa oleifera seed oil and its use in the production of a body cream. Asian J Plant Sci Res. 2013;3:1–4.Google Scholar
- Fuglie LJ. New Uses of Moringa Studied in Nicaragua. ECHO Development Notes #68. 2000.Google Scholar
- Monica GM. Miracle Tree, KOS Health Publications. 2005.p. 91.Google Scholar
- Mehta LK, Balaraman R, Amin AH, Bafna PA, Gulati OD. Effect of fruits of Moringa oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;86:191–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bolanle AO, Olufunmilayo A, Olorunfemi O, Temitayo O. The effect of Moringa oleifera oil - based diet on growth performance, ematological parameters and plasma lipid profile in albino rats. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3:121–130.Google Scholar
- Umer R, Anwar F, Moser BR, Knothe G. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel. Bioresource Technol. 2008;99:8175–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brockman H. Production of biodiesel from perennials. Government of Western Australia: Department of Agric and Food; 2008.Google Scholar
- Anonymous. Moringa’s hope-the miracle tree. 2012. Available at: http://moringashope.blogspot.com/2012/03/moringa-oil-asbiofuel-is-better-than.html (Accessed on 12 May 2012).
- Kywe TT, Oo MM. Production of biodiesel from jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) in pilot plant. World Acad Sci Eng Technol. 2009;50:477–83.Google Scholar
- Parawira W. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a review. Sci Res Essay. 2010;5:1796–808.Google Scholar
- Fuglie LJ. The miracle tree: moringa oleifera: natural nutrition for the tropics. Training manual. Dakar: Church World Service; 2001.Google Scholar
- Mehta J, Shukla A, Bukhariya V, Charde R. The magic remedy of Moringa oliferia: an overview. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2011;2:215–27.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kale S, Megha G. Formulation and in vitro evaluation for sun protection factor of Moringa oleifera Lam (family-moringaceae) oil sunscreen cream. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011;3:371–5.Google Scholar
- Shahidi F. Bailey’s industrial edible oil and fat products. 6th ed. NY: Willey; 2005. p. 174.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kittiphoom S, Sutasinee S. Mango seed kernel oil and its physicochemical properties. Int Food Res J. 2013;20(3):1145–9.Google Scholar
- Azeem W, Nadeem M, Sajid R. Analytical characterization of pure and blended watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) oil: impact of blending on oxidative stability. Pak J Analytical Environ Chem. 2015;16:52–8.Google Scholar
- Ullah R, Nadeem M, Ayaz M, Imran M, Tayyab M. Fractionation of chia oil for enrichment of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and oxidative stability of fractions. Food Sci and Biotechnol. 2016;25:41–7. doi:10.1007/s10068-016-0006-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Erickson DR. Practical handbook of soybean processing and utilization. Champaign: AOCS press; 1995. p. 146.Google Scholar
- Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiple medicinal uses. Phytotherapy Res. 2007;21:17–25.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Greyt W, Kellens K. In: Hamm W, Hamilton RJ, editors. Refining practice in edible oil processing. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press; 2000. p. 79–128.Google Scholar
- O’Brien RD, Wakelyn PJ. Cottonseed oil: an oil for trans free options. Food Technol. 2005;16:677–9.Google Scholar
- Anwar F, Hussain AI, Iqbal S, Bhanger MI. Enhancement of the oxidative stability of some vegetable oils by blending with Moringa oleifera oil. Food Chem. 2007;103:1181–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andrikopoulos NK, Tzamtzis VA, Giannopoulos GA, Kalantzopoulos GK, Demopoulos CA. Deterioration of some vegetable oils. I. During heating or frying of several foods. Rev Fr Corps Gras. 1989;36:127–9.Google Scholar
- Vlahkis C, Hazebroek J. Phytosterol accumulation in canola, sunflower and soybean oils: effect of genetics, planting location and temperature. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2000;76:1313–21.Google Scholar
- Bohacenko I, Kopicova Z. Detection of olive oils authenticity by determination of their sterol content using LG/GC. Czech J Food Sci. 2001;3:97–103.Google Scholar
- Mostafa UES. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential of mango peels and kernels (Mangifera indica L.) on the frying oil stability, lipid profile activity of some antioxidant serum enzymes in rats. J Am Sci. 2013;9(11):371–78.Google Scholar
- Connor WE. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Amr J Clinical Nutr. 2000;71:171S–5S.Google Scholar
- National Sunflower Association. The sunflower, National Sunflower Association, Bismarck, N. Dakota. 2001; March/ April 2001. Page 8–9Google Scholar
- Gertz C, Klostermann S, Kochhar SP. Testing and comparative oxidative stability of vegetable fats and oils at frying temperature. European J Lipid Sci and Tech. 2000;102:534–51.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ullah R, Nadeem M, Ayaz M, Imran M, Tayyab M. Fractionation of chia oil for enrichment of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and oxidative stability of fractions. J Food Sci and Biotech. 2016;25:41–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rahman F, Nadeem M, Khan S, Ahmad S, Zahoor Y. Antioxidant activity of date palm fruit (phoenix dactylifera L.) extract for oxidative stabilization of butter oil at ambient temperature. Pak J Scienti Ind Res. 2015;58:59–64.Google Scholar
- Soong YY, Barlow PJ, Perera CO. A Cocktail of phytonutrients: identification of polyphenols, phytosterol and tocopherols from mango seed kernel. IFT Annual meeting, July 12-16, Las vegas, USA; 2004.Google Scholar
- Imran M, Nadeem M, Manzoor MF, Javed A, Ali Z, Muhammad N, Akhtar M, Ali M, Hussain Y. Fatty Acids Characterization, Oxidative Perspectives and Consumer Acceptability of Oil Extracted from Pre-treated Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) Seeds. Lipids Health Dis. 2016; DOI: 10.1186/s12944-016-0329-x.
- Foidl N, Makkar HPS, Becker K. The potential of Moringa oleifera for agricultural and industrial uses. In: Fuglie LJ, editor. The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa. Dakar: Church World Service; 2001. p. 45–76.Google Scholar