Open Access

Abundance of active ingredients in sea-buckthorn oil

Lipids in Health and Disease201716:95

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0469-7

Received: 13 April 2016

Accepted: 12 April 2017

Published: 19 May 2017

Abstract

Vegetable oils are obtained by mechanical extraction or cold pressing of various parts of plants, most often: seeds, fruits, and drupels. Chemically, these oils are compounds of the ester-linked glycerol and higher fatty acids with long aliphatic chain hydrocarbons (min. C14:0). Vegetable oils have a variety of properties, depending on their percentage of saturation. This article describes sea-buckthorn oil, which is extracted from the well characterized fruit and seeds of sea buckthorn. The plant has a large number of active ingredients the properties of which are successfully used in the cosmetic industry and in medicine. Valuable substances contained in sea-buckthorn oil play an important role in the proper functioning of the human body and give skin a beautiful and healthy appearance. A balanced composition of fatty acids give the number of vitamins or their range in this oil and explains its frequent use in cosmetic products for the care of dry, flaky or rapidly aging skin. Moreover, its unique unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmitooleic acid (omega-7) and gamma-linolenic acid (omega-6), give sea-buckthorn oil skin regeneration and repair properties. Sea-buckthorn oil also improves blood circulation, facilitates oxygenation of the skin, removes excess toxins from the body and easily penetrates through the epidermis. Because inside the skin the gamma-linolenic acid is converted to prostaglandins, sea-buckthorn oil protects against infections, prevents allergies, eliminates inflammation and inhibits the aging process. With close to 200 properties, sea-buckthorn oil is a valuable addition to health and beauty products.

Keywords

Vegetable oils Fatty acids Sea buckthorn oil Gamma-linolenic acid Human health Aging process

Background

Vegetable oils, as a rich source of fatty acids, have gained a common recognition and found applications in the market of medical and cosmetic products [16]. Fatty acids contained in these oils create an occlusive film on the skin which reduces transepidermal water loss (TEWL), thus contributing to maintaining the correct hydration of epidermis [3, 7]. Moreover, fatty acids protect, regenerate and soften stratum corneum, relieve inflammation and ensure an appropriate structure of the skin intercellular cement [3, 6]. Depending on the percentage content of individual ingredients, particularly fatty acids, the effect of oils on skin and human health may vary [14]. For example, the deficiency of oil results in skin being deprived of the sufficient protective layer and causes flaking [6]. Vegetable oils, while playing the part of a base in cosmetic products, protect against excessive water loss through skin mainly by forming an occlusive film which covers the epidermis [3, 4, 6]. In inflammations, oils lower turgor of skin and reduce the perception of pain [3, 6]. Triglycerides of long-chain fatty acids play a significant part in appropriate functioning of the human body [1, 2, 4, 7]. Vegetable oils play a significant part in biological synthesis of cell membrane components or icosanoids (eicosanoids: prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leucotrienes) [3]. Oils take part in transport and oxidation of cholesterol [7]. Fatty acid deficiency weakens blood vessels, lowers immunity, disturbs the process of blood clotting and favours the development of atherosclerosis [79]. One of the natural glycerides is sea-buckthorn oil which has a rich chemical composition and unique properties [914]. This oil is obtained as a result of mechanical cold pressing or extraction from fruit or seeds of the plant [12]. The latest scientific studies confirm the presence of many active ingredients in the extract of common sea-buckthorn (Hippophaes rhamnoides) obtained by cold extraction from the fruit of the plant [10, 11, 14], including antioxidants, vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenols and polysaccharides. Nowadays, both the fruit of sea-buckthorn (Fructus Hippophae) and its seeds (Semen Hippophae) are not only raw materials for food industry, a medicinal product, but also commonly used ingredient of cosmetic products, the properties of which are beneficial for the skin [12]. After taxonomic, chemical and sensory tests of common sea-buckthorn fruit carried out at a university in Finland, where sea-buckthorn is considered to be a plant with special pro health properties, it was proved that the fruit of Hippophaes rhamnoides significantly increases the level of beneficial high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol fraction [11]. These results may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in healthy people [9]. Interestingly, sea-buckthorn fruit was known and valued already in the ancient times, in particular, in traditional Asian medicine. It should be noted that the generic name of the plant, Hippophae, originated in ancient Greece, where sea-buckthorn was fed to horses to make their coats nicer and more shiny (Greek hippos – horse; phaos – shiny) [14, 15].

Botanical description of the product

Common sea-buckthorn (Hippophaes rhamnoides), also called a Siberian pineapple, is a thorny, dioecious shrub (or tree) in the oleaster family (Elaeagnaceae) growing up to 7 m high [12, 16, 17]. It has a smooth or sometimes cracked bark. The name sea-buckthorn may be hyphenated to avoid confusion with the buckthorns in Rhamnaceae family. Sea-buckthorn is also known as sandthorn, sallowthorn or seaberry [18]. The plant grows in Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor and Central Asia, Siberia, China and Tibet [16, 19, 20]. Sea-buckthorn is the most common species in the Hippophae family: H. goniocarpa , H. gyantsensis , H. litangensis , H. neurocarpa , H. rhamnoides L., H. salicifolia , H. tibetana , H. sinensis, which grow from the Atlantic coast of Europe to northwestern Mongolia and northwestern China [20, 21]. In western Europe sea-buckthorn is confined to sandy sea cliffs, dunes and mountain slopes. In central Asia it is found in dry and sandy areas, often as a subalpine shrub. In Poland it is found usually on the Baltic coast, where it tolerates salty soils and forms dense thickets [1620]. The shrub is tolerant of both drought and frost as well as air pollution [12]. Common sea-buckthorn flowers in late April and early May. The plant has long lanceolate leaves covered in silvery hairs underneath. The shrub produces a large number of small, green and brown flowers which grow together in racemes. After the flowering period, they turn into tasty and nutritious round berries, usually yellow or orange, which ripen in September. Inside the fruit there is a smooth, small stone which has a long groove and covers an oily seed [12, 1722]. Sea-buckthorn fruits are bitter and sour in taste and have a delicate aroma, resembling that of a pineapple [12, 14, 15]. The berries are a rich source of vitamins C, E and P as well as malic acid and citric acid. Harvesting sea-buckthorn fruit is very difficult due to dense thorn arrangement among the berries. Therefore, sometimes the only way to get valuable fruit is to remove the entire branch of the shrub, which reduces future crops [16, 17, 20]. For this reason berries can only be harvested once every two years [17, 23]. Sea-buckthorn berries have an impressive vitamin content [12, 24, 25]. They contain mainly vitamin C [1114, 20] (approximately 900 mg%, depending on the variety), but also vitamin A, that is alpha- and beta-carotene (up to 60 mg%) and a mixture of other carotenoids (up to 180 mg% in total). Moreover, the berries contain tocopherols, that is vitamin E (110 to 160 mg%), folic acid (up to 0.79 mg%) and vitamin B complex group, i.e. B1 (0.035 mg%), B2 (up to 0.056 mg%) and B6 [14, 15, 2428]. The fruits contain flavonoids (with an effect of vitamin P), catechins and procyanidins, cyclitols, phospholipids, tannins, sugars: galactose, fructose, xylose, approx. 3.9% organic acids (maleic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid) [1114, 20], phenolic acids, e.g. ferulic acid as well as fatty oil (the content of oil in common sea-buckthorn berry pulp is up to 8 wt.% and in seeds up to 12.5 wt.%) [2429]. The content of vitamin C depends on the variety of the plant and its geographical location. For example, sea-buckthorn growing in Europe in coastal dunes contains 120–315 mg% of vitamin C in fresh fruit, and the species growing in the Alps contains much more vitamin – 405-1100 mg%. Chinese sea-buckthorn fruits (Hippophae sinensis) are richest in vitamin C, with ascorbic acid content of up to 2500 mg% [1418, 21, 2729]. Moreover, the content of carotenoids with an effect of vitamin A is also high. The content of beta-carotene is 40–100 mg% and other carotenoids such as lycopene, cryptoxanthin, physalien, zeaxanthin account for 180–250 mg% [14, 15, 3032]. When the berries are pressed, the resulting juice separates into three layers. The upper layer is a thick orange cream, the middle layer contains a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and the lower layer is a juice which is a source of fat used for cosmetic purposes [3235]. Two upper layers can be processed and used in making of skin care creams, and the bottom layer is usually used in food industry as syrup. Currently, the highly nutritious ingredients of common sea-buckthorn berries are tested for their application in medicine, i.e. in treatment of inflammations, cancers and as adjunctive treatment after chemotherapy [3339]. Bark and leaves of sea-buckthorn used to be applied to treat diarrhea and dermatological conditions, whereas berry oil applied topically or taken orally softened the skin [40]. In Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicines sea-buckthorn fruits were added to medicines, as their ingredients were thought to have a beneficial effect on the function of the alimentary, respiratory and circulatory systems. Nowadays, many studies confirm the practices of Asian doctors from hundreds of years ago [4144]. Physical and chemical properties of sea-buckthorn seed oil are contained in Table 1.
Table 1

Physical and chemical properties of sea-buckthorn seed oil [61]

The parameter

Value

color, absorptivity (L/g·cm)

 232 nm

2.89 ± 0.03

 270 nm

0.64 ± 0.02

 303 nm

0.41 ± 0.02

 410 nm

0.06 ± 0.02

 diene value

3.16 ± 0.01

 triene value

0.070 ± 0.002

p-anisidine value

34.19 ± 0.06

 peroxide value (mequiv/kg)

20.68 ± 0.06

 saponification number

190.00 ± 1.63

 viscosity (mpas·s)

44.0 ± 0.5

 carotenoid content (mg/100 g)

41.1 ± 13.4

tocopherol content (mg/100 g)

 α

155.0 ± 7.0

 β

16.4 ± 1.7

 γ

134.9 ± 2.8

 δ

11.3 ± 1.4

 vitamin E equiv. (mg/100 g)

175.0 ± 8.0

Obtaining the sea-buckthorn seed oil

Common sea-buckthorn oil can be obtained from two parts of the plant [45, 46]. Figure 1 presents one of the exemplary and patented method processing of fresh sea buckthorn berries for seed oil, pulp oil and juice [47]. Firstly, sea-buckthorn oil may be extracted in the process of mechanical cold pressing of seeds which contain up to 12.5 wt.% of oil [1215, 4852]. Secondly, the oil is obtained by extraction or in cold pressing of fruit pulp which contains 8–12 wt.% oil. The obtained fractions are filtered [1215, 46, 48, 53, 54]. The two types of oils differ significantly in terms of appearance and properties. For example, of all vegetable oils sea-buckthorn fruit oil has the highest content of palmitooleic acid (omega-7) of 30 to 35 wt.%, which is not as high in sea-buckthorn seed oil [5355]. The oil obtained from juicy berries is a thick dark orange or red-orange liquid with a characteristic smell and taste (sourish, if pressed from fruit pulp) [53, 55, 56]. Sea-buckthorn seed oil and fruit oil differ significantly in terms of their content of active ingredients [4555]. However, both oils contain a wide range of essential unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), in particular unique palmitooleic acid (C16:1) which is highly valued in cosmetology. Both oils abound in tocopherols, tocotrienols and plant sterols [5052, 55, 56]. Unlike seed oil, pulp sea-buckthorn oil has a high content of carotenoids [56]. In Mongolia, Russia and China pulp oil is used topically in treatment of skin burns [5860]. The oil has been introduced to the local markets by cosmetic companies in anti-aging cosmetics and oral care preparations.
Fig. 1

A schematic diagram shows of the patented method for processing of sea buckthorn berries for seed oil, pulp oil and juice

Composition of chemical compounds

Sea-buckthorn fruit oil is characterised by a unique content of fatty acids compared to other vegetable oils [6163]. In particular, it should be noted that this oil contains rare palmitooleic acid (omega-7) which is a component of skin lipids and stimulates regenerative processes in the epidermis and wound healing. Thanks to it, sea-buckthorn oil activates physiological skin functions and reduces scars [6466]. Used orally it supports treatment of gastric, duodenal and intestine ulcers, while applied topically its soothes and reduces skin burns (caused by sun exposure or radiotherapy), chafed skin, bedsores and trophic skin changes [6466]. Additionally, sea-buckthorn oil contains saturated fatty acids in the form of palmitic acid C16:0 (30–33 wt.%) and stearic acid C18:0 (<1 wt.%), and it has a wide range of essential unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), in particular so called PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) [12, 6163]. They include alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3) C18:3 (30 wt.%), gamma-linolenic acid (omega-6) C18:3 (35.5 wt.%), linolic acid (omega-6) C18:2 (5–7 wt.%), oleic acid (omega-9) C18:1 (14–18 wt.%) and eicosanoic acid (omega-9) C20:1 (2 wt.%) [3, 12, 14, 15, 6163] (Table 2). Such a high content of unique gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) has a significant effect on the transport of nutrients. GLA is also a very important ingredient for skin, because as a building material for components of intercellular cement it binds epidermis cells. It is also a component of phospholipids which build cell membranes [14, 15]. Gamma-linolenic acid improves blood circulation which positively affects the supply of nourishment and oxygen to skin, and it removes excess toxins which as a result improves skin structure, appearance and tone. GLA contained in sea-buckthorn oil easily penetrates to deeper skin layers where it is converted to prostaglandins. Therefore, GLA effectively protects skin against infections, counteracts allergies, relieves inflammations and slows down the ageing process [67, 68]. Moreover, skin deprived of this rare omega-6 acid becomes drier, less elastic and susceptible to any lesions [68]. The presence of linolic acid (omega-6), which is a component of intercellular cement, results in stimulation of cellular regeneration and regulates the functions of skin sebaceous glands [69]. The composition of fatty acids with various properties ensures multidirectional effects of sea-buckthorn oil in different layers of epidermis. On the other hand, a high content of saturated fatty acids (above 30 wt.%) causes the oil to soften the epidermis and protect and secure it against transepidermal water loss [61, 63, 6769].
Table 2

Composition of fatty acids in sea-buckthorn oil [3, 12, 14, 15, 61, 63]

Common name

Systematic name

Content in wt.%

General formula

Numerical symbol

Omega family

Saturated fatty acids

 Palmitic acid

Hexadecanoic acid

30–33

CH3(CH2)14COOH

C16:0

-

 Stearic acid

Octadecanoic acid

<1

CH3(CH2)16COOH

C18:0

-

Unsaturated fatty acids

 Palmitoleic acid

(Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid

30–35

C16H30O2

16:1

7

 Oleic acid

(Z)-9-octadecenoic acid

14–18

C18H34O2

18:1

9

 Linoleic acid (LA)

(Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid

5–7

C18H32O2

18:2

6

 α-Linolenic acid (ALA)

(Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15- octadecatrienoic acid

30

C18H30O2

18:3

3

 γ-linolenic acid (GLA)

(Z,Z,Z)-6,9,12- octadecatrienoic acid

35

C18H30O2

18:3

6

 Gondoic acid

(Z)-11-eicosenoic acid

2

C20H38O2

20:1

9

Saturated fatty acids

The most common saturated fatty acids in vegetable oils include palmitic, stearic, myristic and arachidic acids. They ensure high stability of the oil and its resistance to oxidation [3]. Sea-buckthorn oil contains palmitic and stearic acids [3, 12]. These acids form a protective occlusion on the skin which strengthens the effect of a protective barrier. They provide appropriate turgor and firmness of skin, and have smoothing and softening properties [3, 12, 14, 15, 61, 63].

Unsaturated fatty acids

This group of acids includes fatty acids in the form of colourless liquids, with double bonds. For most of them all double bonds are in a cis configuration [3]. Nowadays, two main classes of unsaturated fatty acids are distinguished. They are monounsaturated FA (omega-9; ω-9; n-9 acids) and polyunsaturated FA (omega-6; ω-6; n-6 acids). Polyunsaturated FA have at least two double bonds and 18 carbon atoms in an alkyl chain [3]. Sea-buckthorn oil contains linolic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) from this group which cannot be produced by a human body due to a lack of certain enzymes. Other polyunsaturated acids found in the oil, i.e. gamma-linolenic acid, oleic acid and palmitoleic acids, can be produced by the body providing there is no enzymatic defect in the course of metabolic changes [3, 12]. Linolic acid is considered to be the most important of all omega-6 acids as other acids in this group, i.e. ALA or GLA can be obtained from it [3, 7, 7072].

Complex lipids

Sea-buckthorn oil also contains the complex lipids which include:
  • phospholipids and glycolipids that exhibit skin moisturizing and soften the epidermis, improve elasticity of the skin, reduce inflammation of the skin, accelerate skin regeneration and cell renewal. For example lecithin (also known as phosphatidylcholine), belonging to the group of phospholipids, has skin renewing and moisturizing properties, as well as it slows the aging process and furthermore, it removes excessive oil (sebum) from the hair. According to the Shugam et al., the total phospholipids content in sea-buckthorn oil was 1 wt.%. The lecithin content in this oil was detected by thin layer chromatography [73]. Other scientific research [74] also have confirmed that the oil from sea buckthorn pericarp contains from 0.2–0.5 to 1 wt.% of phospholipids. Among them, 5.8 wt.% has been estimated to lecithin.

  • sterols, which strengthens the lipid barrier of the skin, protects from harmful substances of external origin and reduces the excessive water loss through the epidermis, thereby improving the skin elasticity and firmness. The petroleum-ether technique was used to extract the highest amount of β-sitosterol (576.9 mg/100 g oil), being the major sterol compound throughout the berry and constitutes 57–83 wt.% of total sterols [75]. In turn, β-sitosterol including with campesterol and stigmasterol were present in the pulp oil with the latter having together the highest contribution (97 wt.%). Using the petroleum-ether technique, the quantity of cholesterol (4.5 mg/100 g oil) was also extracted [76]. In the sea-buckthorn oil has proven the minor amount (less than 1 wt.%) of liposomes, allowing the introduction of active substances into the skin or ceramides that provide the proper hydration and smooth the skin, as well as they provide skin firming and regeneration [77].

Other bioactive compounds and their significance for a human health

In addition, sea-buckthorn oil contains many active substances, through which this oil has many different properties (Table 3). In particular vitamins A, C, E, F, P and B complex are present in the oil [12, 14, 15, 34, 45]. Vitamin A, found in the form of carotenoids (approx. 200 mg/100 g), provides regenerative and anti-wrinkle properties of the oil [3134, 57]. Vitamin C, the content of which is 15 times higher than in orange fruit (approx. 695 mg/100 g), has an antioxidative effect [5860] and protects against harmful UVA and UVB radiation [12, 14, 15, 38, 56, 78]. It also evens out the skin tone. The presence of vitamin E in the form of tocopherols (approx. 200–600 mg/100 g) and minerals and flavonoids strengthens the walls of capillary blood vessels. Sea-buckthorn oil also contains sterols, fruit acids (malic acid, citric acid), phenolic compounds, tannins, phospholipids, anthocyanins, sugars, pectins and mineral salts including sulfur, selenium, copper and zinc [12, 14, 15, 5052]. The importance for human health of sea-buckthorn oil have been proved by in vivo tests and have shown in Table 4.
Table 3

Composition of other bioactive ingredients contained in sea-buckthorn oil and their significance for a human health

Name of ingredient

Quantity

Significance

polyphenols

120–550 mg%

antioxidant properties

phenolic acids:

- salicylic

- p-coumaric

- m-coumaric

- p-hydroxyphenyl lactic acid

- gallic acid

71 wt.% of polyphenols

participation in the creation of dyes and protection against the development of undesirable microflora [83]

flavonoids

 

inhibition of thrombosis and hypertension [8486], and promotion of wound healing [87]

- flavan-3-ols

- (catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin)

- kaempferol

- quercetin

- isorhamnetin

- myricetin

- rutin

- proanthocyanidins

 

antioxidants, stabilization of ascorbic acid [88]

sterols

1 wt.%

reduction of blood cholesterol level, importance in the treatment of burns, huge contribution in the synthesis of steroid hormones and other biologically active compounds [89, 90]

phytosterols

sitosterol

48–53 wt.% of phytosterols

tocopherols (vitamin E)

110 mg%

antioxidants, according to the study, the degree of fruit ripeness effects on the content of tocopherols [91, 92]

α-tocopherol

62–68 wt.% of tocopherols

δ-tokoferol

32–37 wt.% of tocopherols

macronutrients

 

they are energy-providing chemical substances consumed by organisms in large quantities [93]

potassium

168–219 mg%

affects muscle spasms

magnesium

8.3–9.5 mg%

with calcium is responsible for the proper functioning of the nervous system

calcium

5–7.2 mg%

for the proper functioning of the muscular system

micronutrients

 

they are required by organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions [93]

iron

1.24 mg%

component of hemoglobin, myoglobin and coenzymes many enzymes involved, among others, in the formation of ATP

zinc

0.25 mg%

participates in various stages of protein biosynthesis, ingredient of insulin (also plays an important role in the storage of the pancreas), regulates the concentration of vitamin A is used in the formation of bone, stimulates growth and tissue repair (wound healing)

manganese

necessary for proper development of tissue (especially bone) and for the functioning of the central nervous system

copper

0.006 mg%

cofactor of many enzymes

nickel

0.015 mg%

component of urease - an enzyme decomposing urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide

vitamins

 

they have diverse biochemical functions [93]

vitamin C

900 mg%

antioxidant, participates in the synthesis of collagen fibers, removes free radicals and strengthens immunity.

vitamin A

60 mg%

antioxidant

vitamin E (tocopherols)

up to 160 mg%

antioxidant

vitamin B1

0.016–0.035 mg%

function as enzyme cofactors (coenzymes) or the precursors for them

vitamin B2

0.03–0.05 mg%

vitamin B6 (Folic acid)

up to 0.079 mg%

vitamin K1

0.9–15 mg%

normalizes blood clotting, and is essential for preventing osteoporosis and normal renal function

vitamin D

 

prevents rickets and osteomalacia

carotenoids

7.94–28.16 mg%

antioxidants and plant pigments, anticancer properties [91, 9498]

δ-carotene

14–25 wt.% of carotenoids

γ-carotene

30 wt.% of carotenoids

lycopene

30 wt.% of carotenoids

zeaxanthin and other carotenoids

15 wt.% of carotenoids

Table 4

Sea-buckthorn oil and its importance for human health proved by in vivo tests –literature review

Function of oil

Reference

has antiatherogenic properties

protects the heart

has antiaggregative properties

can be used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease

has antioxidative properties

antiinflammatory

protects cardiovascular disease

has commercial applications due to the high level of ω-7

[84]

in the treatment of burns, chilblains, bedsores, difficult healing of wounds

[99]

it is proved its application in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease.

[100]

exhibits an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

[101]

protects cardiovascular disease and inhibits the risk factors.

[102]

has antioxidant, anti-ulcerogenic and hepato-protective actions, and its berry oil is reported to suppress platelet aggregation.

[103]

has the antihypertensive effect due to the flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L.

[104]

has dermal wound healing activity

[105]

reduces the increase of the osmotic concentration in tear film during the cold season and positively affects the dry eye symptoms.

[106]

has significant hepatoprotective effects

can be used as a food supplement against liver diseases

[107]

Significance of fatty acids found in sea-buckthorn oil for skin

Linolic acid found in sea-buckthorn oil plays a significant role in skin. It strengthens the lipid barrier of the epidermis in dry skin and protects against transepidermal water loss. Additionally, LA regulates skin metabolism [3, 14, 15, 6870]. Linolic acid is also a natural component of sebum. In patients with acne prone skin a decrease in the content of linolic acid in sebum was noted. As a result blackheads and spots form. Linolic acid used in the care of oily and problematic skin can stimulate the function of sebaceous glands, unblock pores and limit the number of blackheads. LA is also used for the production of intercellular cement [3, 69, 72]. Gamma-linolenic acid, which is also found in sea-buckthorn oil, is formed as a result of action of delta-6-desaturase enzyme in a process of metabolic changes of linolic acid. Together with alpha-linolenic acid, GLA is a component of cell membranes or mitochondrial membranes of human cells [3, 7, 68, 72]. GLA and ALA are also responsible for normal intra- and intercellular transport (including the transfer of stimuli in the neuronal network forming the brain) [3, 7, 70, 79]. It is assumed that unsaturated fatty acids, in particular in omega-3 group (mainly EPA and DHA), inhibit the development of neoplastic tumours as well as growth of neoplastic tissue and its later metastasis [80]. It was also proved that these acids can reduce post-inflammatory substances, induced by a harmful UV radiation. These compounds reduce the effects of sunburns, accelerate regenerative processes of the damaged lipid barrier of the epidermis and soothe irritation [6466, 68, 78]. Omega fatty acids: omega-9 (oleic acid), omega-6 (linolic acid), and omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acids) lower transepidermal water loss and improve the skin hydration level [69, 71, 72]. Unsaturated FA play a part of receptors which stimulate the synthesis of barrier lipids of skin and proteins – precursors of a natural hydrating factor [7072].

Sea-buckthorn oil in cosmetic products

Sea-buckthorn oil is used in cosmetic industry as an ingredient of preparations for mature skin [12, 70]. It is most commonly found in anti-ageing and anti-wrinkle products, as it is a great antioxidant [1315, 24, 36, 39, 58, 70]; it also firms and tones sagging skin smoothing out wrinkles [70]. Sea-buckthorn oil is also appropriate in care of dry, irritated (e.g. after sunbathing), rough, flaking and itchy skin [38, 68]. It is used as auxiliary product in treatment of frostbites and skin damage [54, 66] resulting from exposure to UV radiation, x-rays and chemical compounds [4, 38, 78]. Sea-buckthorn oil stimulates wound healing (including necrotic wounds), stimulating regeneration and processes of forming new healthy epidermis, and moreover collagen synthesis [81]. This oil reduces bedsores, treats eczema and reduces spots, acne, allergic and inflammatory lesions of the skin [40, 58, 66]. The oil is used as a soothing agent after cosmetic procedures e.g. peelings, baths, masks, hair removal. Its presence in shampoos, hair conditioners or preparations used after dying or permanent wave treatment guarantees recovery, supports regeneration of damaged hair, restores its elasticity and ensures smoothness. Due to a high content of unsaturated fatty acids [61, 68] and related fast rancidity process of sea-buckthorn oil is recommended that it is used in the form of capsules for cosmetic products [62, 81]. It is also significant that sea-buckthorn oil, thanks to its intensive colour, improves skin tone after direct application on skin, giving it a fresh and healthy appearance [31, 34, 57].

Sea-buckthorn oil for human health

Sea-buckthorn oil as well as extracts from its fruit are used as an adjunctive therapy in treatment of many diseases [1, 2, 4, 812, 27, 37, 42, 43]. Sea-buckthorn oil has a soothing effect in inflammation of the alimentary system, duodenum or in diarrhea [37, 38]. It is successfully used in treatment of chronic gastric ulcer disease and also in inflammations of vagina and cervix and in cervical erosion [1, 2, 37]. This oil relieves symptoms of rheumatoid disease, lowers cholesterol level, stops small bleeding and lowers the risk of thrombophlebitis [8, 9, 11, 37]. Sea-buckthorn oil is also recommended in febrile diseases, in particular caused by viruses and bacteria [37]. It is safe to use by pregnant and breastfeeding women [14, 15, 78]. The oil is effective in treatment of dermatoses and any skin diseases and it supports the process of granulation of wounds that are difficult to heal [6466]. Sea-buckthorn oil strengthens the structure of hair therefore it is used as an effective remedy against hair loss or even balding. As a natural source of well absorbed vitamin C, this oil is used as an adjunctive treatment in a number of conditions which require an increased amount of ascorbic acid and as an agent supporting the function of the immune system [14, 15, 67, 82]. Thanks to a high content of carotenoids and tocopherols [12, 82] sea-buckthorn oil can be used in treatment of burns, frostbites, bedsores and skin damage, e.g. resulting from the exposure to sun or x-rays [4, 38, 78].

Summary

Sea-buckthorn oil contains approximately 190 bioactive substances including: saturated fatty acids- palmitic acid C16:0, stearic acid C18:0, unsaturated fatty acids- eicosanoic acid ω-9 C20:1, oleic acid ω-9 C18:1, palmitoleic ω-7 C16:1, linolic acid ω-6 C18:2, alpha-linolenic acid ω-3 C18:3, gamma-linolenic acid ω-6 C18:3, sterols, approx. 14 vitamins: A, C, D, E, F, K, P, and B complex vitamins (B1, B2, B6), provitamin A, that is alpha- and beta-carotene, mixture of other carotenoids (up to 180 mg%), strong antioxidants (tocopherols, tocotrienols), flavonoids (approx. 36 types), fruit acids: malic acid and citric acids, phenolic compounds, approx. 11 mineral salts, including zinc, iron, calcium, selenium, copper, tannins, phospholipids, anthocyanins, steroids, sugars, pectins, approx. 18 amino acids.

Sea-buckthorn oil has a beneficial effect on skin because: it is a strong antioxidant – this oil fights free radicals, rebuilds cells and delays cell ageing, supports wound healing, reduces scars and discolourations, treats dermatoses, eczemas, ulceration, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne, improves skin elasticity and structure, provides appropriate hydration of epidermis, limits excessive water loss, protects against harmful radiation (solar or x-rays), has a regenerative and anti-ageing effect.

Sea-buckthorn oil is significant for human health because: it supports the function of the immune system, helps to fight infections and microorganisms, improves circulation and heart function, prevents atherosclerosis, lowers the level of cholesterol in blood, supports the function of the digestive system and metabolism, relieves the symptoms of chronic gastric ulcer disease and other diseases of the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, liver and intestines, prevents inflammations, improves the function of brain and the nervous system, lowers the risk of malignant cancers, supports regeneration of the body after chemotherapy and serious diseases, reenergizes and revitalizes, positively affects mood and has an antidepressant effect.

Conclusions

Sea-buckthorn oil contains an abundance of active substances which is unique in known vegetable oils. Scientific reports confirm the content of almost 200 ingredients which ensure that the oil has a multidirectional effect [3, 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 67, 82]. Therefore, sea-buckthorn and its oil may be considered to be one of the most valuable natural products in the world. The beneficial effect of various active ingredients contained in sea-buckthorn oil has been recognised in food industry as well as in medicine, pharmacology and cosmetic industry [9, 11, 12, 26, 29, 32, 37, 65] where this oil is used more and more often in skin care preparations or as an adjunctive treatment in various diseases [1, 2, 4, 812, 27, 37, 42, 43]. Modern cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies search for natural substances which display unique properties such as sea-buckthorn oil, which added to a product even in a small quantity will undoubtedly ensure its uniqueness.

Abbreviations

(Z): 

niem. Zusammen, ang. Together

ALA: 

alpha-linolenic acid

DHA: 

docosahexaenoic acid

EPA: 

eicosapentaenoic acid

FA: 

fatty acids

GLA: 

gamma-linolenic acid

HDL: 

high-density lipoprotein

LA: 

linoleic acid

PUFA: 

polyunsaturated fatty acids

TEWL: 

transepidermal water loss

UFA: 

unsaturated fatty acids

UV: 

ultraviolet

UVA: 

ultraviolet A

UVB: 

ultraviolet B

Declarations

Funding

This paper is financed in the framework of grant entitled: “Cultivated plants and natural products as a source of biologically active substances assign to the production of cosmetic and pharmaceutical products as well as diet supplements” (no. BIOSTRATEG2/298205/9/NCBR/2016) attributed by the National Center for Research and Development.

Availability of data and material

Please contact authors for data requests.

Authors’contribution

AZ, collected, elaborated the literature and drafted the manuscript. IN, collected the literature, coordinated and helped to draft the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań

References

  1. Huang X, Sjögren P, Ärnlöv J, Risérus U, Carrero JJ, et al. Serum fatty acid patterns, insulin sensitivity and the metabolic syndrome in individuals with chronic kidney disease. J Intern Med. 2014;275(1):71–83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Rosiaux Y, Jannin V, Hughes S. Solid lipid excipients - Matrix agents for sustained drug delivery. J Control Release. 2014;188:18–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Zielińska A, Nowak I. Fatty acids in vegetable oils and their importance in cosmetic industry. Chem Aust. 2014;68(2):103–10.Google Scholar
  4. Niculae G, Lacatusu I, Badea N, Meghea A, Stan R. Influence of vegetable oil on the synthesis of bioactive nanocarriers with broad spectrum photoprotection. Cent Eur J Chem. 2014;12(8):837–50.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Gharby S, Harhar H, Kartah B, Bouzoubaa Z, Charrouf Z, et al. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study. J Cosmet Sci. 2014;65(2):81–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Knowles J, Watkinson C. Extraction of omega-6 fatty acids from speciality seeds. Lipid Technol. 2014;26(5):107–10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Rajaram S. Health benefits of plant-derived α-linolenic acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(1):443–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Ng CY, Leong XF, Masbah N, Kamisah Y, Jaarin K, et al. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Vasc Pharmacol. 2014;61(1):1–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Sayegh M, Miglio C, Ray S. Potential cardiovascular implications of Sea Buckthorn berry consumption in humans. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014;65(5):521–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Song Z, Xu H, Gao J, et al. Physicochemical properties changes of sea buckthorn cloudy juice during cold crushing, concentrating and storage. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng. 2014;30(3):264–70.Google Scholar
  11. Kallio HP, Yang B. Health effects of sea buckthorn berries; research and strategies at the university of Turku, Finland. Acta Hortic. 2014;1017:343–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Walczak-Zeidler K, Feliczak-Guzik A, Nowak I. Oleje roślinne stosowane jako surowce kosmetyczne – leksykon: Olej z rokitnika. Kostrzyn: Cursiva; 2012. p. 101–5.Google Scholar
  13. Górnaś P, Šne E, Siger A, Segliņa D. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves as valuable source of lipophilic antioxidants: The effect of harvest time, sex, drying and extraction methods. Ind Crop Prod. 2014;60:1–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P. Effects of different origins and harvesting time on vitamin C, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(21):6136–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Yang B, Kallio H. Effects of harvesting time on triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries of different origins. J Food Compos Anal. 2002;15(2):143–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Wang R, Zong SX, Yu LF, Lu PF, Luo YQ. Rhythms of volatile release from female and male sea buckthorn plants and electrophysiological response of sea buckthorn carpenter moths. J Plant Interact. 2014;9(1):763–74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Fu L, Su H, Li R, Cui Y. Harvesting technologies for sea buckthorn fruit. Eng Agric Environ Food. 2014;7(2):64–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. PLANTS Profile for Hippophae rhamnoides (seaberry). United States Department of Agriculture; 2007.Google Scholar
  19. Bartish IV, Jeppsson N, Nybom H, Swenson U. Phylogeny of Hippophae (Elaeagnaceae) Inferred from Parsimony Analysis of Chloroplast DNA and Morphology. Syst Bot. 2002;27(1):41–54.Google Scholar
  20. Li TSC. Product development of sea buckthorn. In: Janick J, Whipkey A, editors. Trends in new crops and new uses. Alexandria: ASHS Press; 2002. p. 393–398.Google Scholar
  21. Korekar G, Dolkar P, Singh H, Srivastava RB, Stobdan T. Genotypic and morphometric effect on fruit oil content in seventeen natural population of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) from trans-Himalaya. National Acad Sci Lett. 2013;36(6):603–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Dog TL. Smart talk on supplements and botanicals: Exotic fruits-acai, noni, mangosteen, sea buckthorn, and goji. Altern Complement Ther. 2009;15(4):166–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Li TSC, Schroeder WR. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): A Multipurpose Plant. HortTechnology. 1996;6(4):370–80.Google Scholar
  24. Chen L, Xin X, Yuan Q, Su D, Liu W. Phytochemical properties and antioxidant capacities of various colored berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;94(2):180–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP. Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries: Identification and effects of different origins and harvesting times. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(11):5620–9. doi:10.1021/jf010813m.
  26. Zeb A. Chemical and nutritional constituents of sea buckthorn juice. Pak J Nutr. 2004;3(2):99–106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Zeb A. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. ssp. turkestanica) Seeds. Chemical and Physicochemical Properties. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR, Patel VB, editors. Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. London: Elsevier; 2011. p. 1003–1010.Google Scholar
  28. Seglina D, et al. The effect of processing on the composition of sea buckthorn juice. J Fruit Ornamental Plant Res. 2006;14(2):257–63.Google Scholar
  29. Rösch D, Bergmann M, Knorr D, Kroh LW. Structure−Antioxidant Efficiency Relationships of Phenolic Compounds and Their Contribution to the Antioxidant Activity of Sea Buckthorn Juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(15):4233–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Selvamuthukumaran M, Khanum F. Development of spiced seabuckthorn [Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) a. Nelson syn. Hippophae rhamnoides L.] mixed fruit squash. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2014;13(1):132–41.Google Scholar
  31. Pop RM, Weesepoel Y, Socaciu C, Vincken JP, Gruppen H, et al. Carotenoid composition of berries and leaves from six Romanian sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) varieties. Food Chem. 2014;147:1–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Stobdan T, Korekar G, Srivastava RB. Nutritional attributes and health application of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) - A review. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2013;9(2):151–65.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Beveridge THJ, Li TSC. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) production and utilization. Ottawa: NRC Research Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  34. Cenkowski S, et al. Quality of extracted sea buckthorn seed and pulp oil. Can Biosyst Eng. 2006;48(3):9–16.Google Scholar
  35. Rashid A, Raisuddin A, Dhruv Kumar N, Sarwat S, Aseem B, et al. Safety and efficacy study of intramuscularly administered sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) oil as depot formulation. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2011;3(3):356–65.Google Scholar
  36. Lee HI, Kim MS, Lee KM, Park SK, Seo KI, Kim HJ, Kim MJ, Choi MS, Lee MK. Anti-visceral obesity and antioxidant effects of powdered sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf tea in diet-induced obese mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011;49(9):2370–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Alam Z. Important Therapeutic Uses of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae): A Review. J Biol Sci. 2004;4(5):687.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Gupta A, Upadhyay NK. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seed Oil: Usage in Burns, Ulcers, and Mucosal Injuries. In: Preedy VR, Watson RR, Patel VB, editors. Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention. London: Elsevier; 2011. p. 1011–1018.Google Scholar
  39. Michel T, Destandau E, Le Floch G, Lucchesi ME, Elfakir C. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and phytochemical investigations of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) leaf, stem, root and seed. Food Chem. 2012;131(3):754–60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Bath-Hextall FJ, Jenkinson C, Humphreys R, Williams HC. Dietary supplements for established atopic eczema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;2:CD005205.Google Scholar
  41. Solcan C, Gogu M, Floristean V, Oprisan B, Solcan G. The hepatoprotective effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries on induced aflatoxin B1 poisoning in chickens. Poult Sci. 2013;92(4):966–74.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodhe Y, Woodhill T, Thorman R, Möller L, Hylander B. The Effect of Sea Buckthorn Supplement on Oral Health, Inflammation, and DNA Damage in Hemodialysis Patients. A Double-Blinded, Randomized Crossover Study. J Ren Nutr. 2013;23(3):172–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Stobdan T, Chaurasia OP, Korekar G, Yadav A, Singh SB. Attributes of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) to Meet Nutritional Requirements in High Altitude. Defence Sci J. 2010;60(2):226–30.Google Scholar
  44. Casariu ED, Virgolici B, Lixandru D, Popescu LA, Mohora M, et al. Sea buckthorn pulp oil treatment can prevent metabolic syndrome in hypertriglyceridemic waist fenotype obese children. Farmacia. 2013;61(6):1043–53.Google Scholar
  45. Kyriakopoulou K, Pappa A, Krokida M, Kefalas P, Chronis M, et al. Bioactive compounds of sea buckthorns (Hippophae rhamnoides) berries and leaves - Effects of drying and extraction methods. Acta Hortic. 2014;1017:399–406.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Isayev JI, Karimov YB, Kazimov HA. New technology of sea-buckthorn oil extraction. Azerbaijan Med J. 2005;2:7–9.Google Scholar
  47. Arumughan C, Venugopalan VV, Ranjith A, Sarinkumar K, Mangalagowri P, Sawhney RC, et al, A novel green approach to the integrated processing of sea buckthorn berries for therapeutic and nutraceutical values. Indian Patent 648/DEL. 2004.Google Scholar
  48. Derevich IV, Shindyapkin AA. Extraction of organic oil from sea buckhorn seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide. Teoreticheskie Osnovy Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii. 2014;38(3):294–304.Google Scholar
  49. Yang B, Ahotupa M, Määttä P, Kallio H. Composition and antioxidative activities of supercritical CO2-extracted oils from seeds and soft parts of northern berries. Food Res Int. 2011;44(7):2009–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  50. Sajfrtová M, Ličková I, Wimmerová M, Sovová H, Wimmer Z. β-sitosterol: Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds. Int J Mol Sci. 2010;11(4):1842–50.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Sovová H, Galushko AA, Stateva RP, Sajfrtová M, Bártlová M, et al. Supercritical fluid extraction of minor components of vegetable oils: β-Sitosterol. J Food Eng. 2010;101(2):201–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  52. Kagliwal LD, Patil SC, Pol AS, Singhal RS, Patravale VB. Separation of bioactives from seabuckthorn seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology through solubility parameter approach. Sep Purif Technol. 2011;80(3):533–40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  53. Kuznetsova EI, Pchelkin VP, Tsydendambaev VD, Vereshchagin AG. Distribution of unusual fatty acids in the mesocarp triacylglycerols of maturing sea buckthorn fruits. Russ J Plant Physiol. 2010;57(6):852–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  54. Dulf FV. Fatty acids in berry lipids of six sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., subspecies carpatica) cultivars grown in Romania. Chem Central J. 2012;6(1):106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  55. Fatima T, Snyder CL, Schroeder WR, Weselake RJ, Krishna P, et al. Fatty acid composition of developing sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry and the transcriptome of the mature seed. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):340–99.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  56. Arif S, Ahmed SD, Shah AH, Hamid A, Batool F, et al. Determination of optimum harvesting time for Vitamin C, oil and mineral elements in berries sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). Pak J Bot. 2010;42(5):3561–8.Google Scholar
  57. Müller L, Fröhlich K, Böhm V. Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem. 2011;129(1):139–48.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Yoon MY, Oh JS, Kang H, Park JK. Antioxidant and antibacterial behavior for sediment removed ethanol extract from sea buckthorn seed. Korean J Chem Eng. 2012;29(8):1069–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  59. Rudzinska M, Zadernowski R, Siger A, Krzyzostaniak I. Phytochemical content and antioxidant properties of seeds of unconventional oil plants. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2010;87(12):1481–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  60. Manea AM, Vasile BS, Meghea A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of green tea extract loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers. C R Chim. 2014;17(4):331–41.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  61. Beveridge T, Li TS, Oomah BD, Smith A. Sea buckthorn products: manufacture and composition. J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47(9):3480–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Staňková B, Kremmyda LS, Tvrzická E, Žák A. Fatty acid composition of commercially available nutrition supplements. Czech J Food Sci. 2013;31(3):241–8.Google Scholar
  63. Yang B, Kallio HP. Fatty acid composition of lipids in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries of different origins. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;49(4):1939–47.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  64. Ito H, Asmussen S, Traber DL, Sakurai H, Enkhbaatar P, et al. Healing efficacy of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil in an ovine burn wound model. Burns. 2014;40(3):511–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Edraki M, Akbarzadeh A, Hosseinzadeh M, Salehi A, Koohi-Hosseinabadi O, et al. Healing effect of sea buckthorn, olive oil, and their mixture on full-thickness burn wounds. Adv Skin Wound Care. 2014;27(7):317–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Cupara SM, Ninkovic MB, Knezevic MG, Vuckovic IM, Jankovic SM. Wound healing potential of liquid crystal structure emulsion with sea buckthorn oil. HealthMED. 2011;5(5):1218–23.Google Scholar
  67. Orr SK, Trépanier MO, Bazinet RP. N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fat Acids. 2013;88(1):97–103.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  68. Lee S, Gura KM, Kim S, Arsenault DA, Bistrian BR, Puder M. Current clinical applications of Ω-6 and Ω-3 fatty acids. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006;21(4):323–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Yen CH, Dai YS, Yang YH, Lee JH, Chiang BL, et al. Linoleic acid metabolite levels and transepidermal water loss in children with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;100(1):66–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Uauy R, Dangour AD. Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:24–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  71. Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen JM. The skin: an indispensable barier. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:1063–72.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kim KB, Nam YA, Kim HS, Hayes AW, Lee BM. α-Linolenic acid: Nutraceutical, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014;70:163–78.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. El-Shattory Y. Review on fish phospholipids. Die Nahrung. 1979;23(2):179–86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Bekker NP, Glushenkova AI. Components of certain species of the elaeagnaceae family. Chem Nat Compd. 2001;37(2):97–116.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  75. Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP. Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries: identification and effects of different origins and harvesting times. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49(11):5620–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Cenkowski S, Yakimishen R, Przybylski R, Muir WE. Quality of extracted sea buckthorn seed and pulp oil. Can Biosyst Eng. 2006;48:309–16.Google Scholar
  77. Oomah BD. Sea Buckthorn Lipids. In: Li Thomas SC, Beveridge Thomas HJ, editors. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.): Production and Utilization. Ottawa: National Research Council Canada, NRC Researc Press; 2003. p. 51–60.Google Scholar
  78. Kumar IP, Namita S, Goel HC. Modulation of chromatin organization by RH-3, a preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides, a possible role in radioprotection. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007;238(1):1–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  79. Berquin IM, Min Y, Wu R, Wu J, Perry D, Cline JM, Thomas MJ, et al. Modulation of prostate cancer genetic risk by omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Eur J Clin Investig. 2007;117:1866–75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  80. Kim H, Cho H, Seo YK, Kim S, Yoon MY, Kang H, Park CS, Park JK. Inhibitory Effects of Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seed on UVB-induced Photoaging in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2012;17:465–74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  81. Manea AM, Ungureanu C, Meghea A. Effect of vegetable oils on obtaining lipid nanocarriers for sea buckthorn extract encapsulation. C R Chim. 2014;17(9):934–43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  82. Yang B, Kallio H. Composition and physiological effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) lipids. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2002;13:160–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosch D, Bergmann M, Knorr D, Kroh LW. Structure–antioxidant efficiency relationships of phenolic compounds and their contribution to the antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn juice. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4233–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Fatima T, Snyder CL, Schroeder WR, Cram D, Datla R, et al. Fatty Acid Composition of Developing Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Berry and the Transcriptome of the Mature Seed. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34099. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034099.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Cheng J, Kondo K, Suzuki Y, Ikeda Y, Meng X, et al. Inhibitory effectsof total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation. Life Sci. 2003;72:2263–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pang X, Zhao J, Zhang W, Zhuang X, Wang J, et al. Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 117: 325–331.Google Scholar
  87. Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Singh V, Banerjee PK, et al. Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavone on dermal wound healing in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;290:193–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Zadernowski R, Naczk M, Nowak-Polakowska H, Nesterowicz J. Effect of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry extracts on the activity of lipase and lipoxygenase. J Food Lipids. 2002;9:249–58.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  89. Li TSC, Bereridge THJ, Drover JCG. Phytosterol content of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil. Extraction and identification. Food Chem. 2007;101:1665–71.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  90. Yang B, Karlsson RM, Oksman PH, Kallio HP. Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries: identification and effects of different origins and harvesting times. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:5620–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Zadernowski R, Naczk M, Amarowicz R. Tocopherols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berry oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2003;80:55–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  92. Kallio H, Yang B, Peippo P, Tahvonen R, Pan R. Triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols in berries and seeds of two subspecies (ssp. sinensis and mongolica) of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides). J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3004–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Vitamins and minerals. US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library. Retrieved 18 April 2016.Google Scholar
  94. Soares Nda C, et al. Anticancer properties of carotenoids in prostate cancer. A review. J Histol Histopathol. 2015;30(10):1143–54.Google Scholar
  95. El-Agamey A, Lowe GM, McGarvey DJ, Mortensen A, Denise M, Phillip T, et al. Carotenoid radical chemistry and antioxidant/pro-oxidant properties. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;430:37–48.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, Gluud C. Antioxidant supplements and mortality. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014;17(1):40–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Takeda A, et al. Vitamin A and carotenoids and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuroepidemiology. 2014;42(1):25–38.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Andersson SC, Olsson ME, Johansson E, Rumpunen K. Carotenoids in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) berries during ripening and use of pheophytin a as a maturity marker. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:250–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Gupta A, Upadhyay NK, Sawhney RC, Kumar R. A poly-herbal formulation accelerates normal and impaired diabetic wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2008;16:784–90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Xing J, Yang B, Dong Y, Wang B, Wang J, et al. Effects of sea buckthorn seed and pulp oils on experimental models of gastric ulcer in rats. Fitoterapia. 2002;73:644–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Basu M, Prasad R, Jatamurthy P, Pal K, Arumughan C, Sawhney RC. Anti-atherogenic effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seed oil. Phytomedicine. 2007;14:770–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Suomela JP, Ahotupa M, Yang B, Vasankari T, Kallio H. Absorption of flavonols derived from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and their effect on emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:7364–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Cheng J, Kondo K, Suzuki Y, Ikeda Y, Meng X, et al. Inhibitory effects of total flavones of Hippophae rhamnoides L. on thrombosis in mouse femoral artery and in vitro platelet aggregation. Life Sci. 2003;72:2263–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Pang X, Zhao J, Zhang W, Zhuang X, Wang J, et al. Antihypertensive effect of total flavones extracted from seed residues of Hippophae rhamnoides L. in sucrose-fed rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008;117:325–31.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Singh V, Banerjee PK, et al. Influence of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) flavone on dermal wound healing in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;290:193–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Larmo PS, Järvinen RL, Setälä NL, Yang B, Viitanen MH, et al. Oral sea buckthorn oil attenuates tear film osmolarity and symptoms in individuals with dry eye. J Nutr. 2010;140:1462–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Suryakumar G, Purushothaman J, Pal K, Pandey S, Kumar R, Sawhney RC. Hepatoprotective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. J Sci Food Agric. 2008;88:1592–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2017