Skip to content

Advertisement

  • Research
  • Open Access

A functional variant rs12904 in the miR-200c binding site was associated with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke

  • 1,
  • 2,
  • 1,
  • 1 and
  • 1Email author
Lipids in Health and Disease201918:110

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-019-1060-1

  • Received: 5 March 2019
  • Accepted: 29 April 2019
  • Published:

Abstract

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified chromosome 12p13 rs12425791 and rs11833579 as susceptibility loci of ischemic stroke (IS) in a European population. However, conflicting results were obtained in subsequent replication analysis. miR-200c, located on chromosome 12p13, was found to have a neuroprotective effect on ischemia. Our aim of this study was to investigate the association of the rs12425791, rs11833579 and rs12904 in the binding site of miR-200c with the risk of IS. The rs12425791, rs11833579, and rs12904 were genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The results were verified by Sanger sequencing. We found that the rs12904 AG/GG genotypes and G allele were associated with a decreased risk of IS (AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.95; G vs. A: adjusted OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.93). The combined genotypes of the rs11833579AG/AA and rs12904AG/GG were also associated with a reduced risk of IS (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.93). These findings suggest that the rs12904 may have a jointly protective effect against the risk of IS.

Keywords

  • miR-200c
  • Genome-wide association study
  • Polymorphism
  • Ischemic stroke

Introduction

Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, and about 73–87% of strokes are ischemic [13]. It is evident that ischemic stroke (IS) has a substantial genetic component, especially in patients less than 70 years of age [47]. For example, family history is a risk factor for stroke, and monozygotic twins are more likely to be concordant than dizygotic twins [8]. Our previous work showed that S100B rs9722, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) rs1804826, and miR-143/145 rs4705342 were genetic risk factors for the occurrence of IS, probably by affecting the expression levels of serum S100B, soluble GDF-15, and miR-145 [911].

Over the past years, microRNAs (miRNAs), have been identified as important gene regulators in the development of human diseases including IS by binding to the 3′-untranslated region (3’UTR) of target mRNAs [1214]. Among them, miR-200c was differentially expressed and had a neuroprotective effect on ischemia, indicating that miR-200c may be used as a potential target for therapeutic intervention [1315].

In 2009, genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 12p13 (i.e., rs12425791 and rs11833579) were associated with the risk of stroke in a Dutch population [16]. A replication study performed in a Swedish population, however, did not confirm the finding of the rs12425791 conferring the substantial risk for IS [17]. In a Chinese Han population, the results were conflicting. Tong et al. reported that the rs11833579A allele may play a role in mediating susceptibility and occurrence to IS [18, 19], while Ding et al. reported no evidence for the association of 12p13 SNPs rs11833579 and rs12425791 with IS risk [20]. Additionally, an rs12904 A allele in the 3’UTR of EFNA1 disrupted the binding site of miR-200c that located on chromosome 12p13, resulting in translational repression and elevated levels of EFNA1 [21]. Based on this background, we hypothesized that the 3 SNPs on chromosome 12p13 were related to the risk of IS. In the current study, we performed a case-control study to evaluate whether the 3 SNPs were risk factors for the etiology of IS.

Materials and methods

Study population

The study protocol was approved by the Review Board of the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities. All subjects signed informed consent to participate in the study. The flow chart of the study is shown in Fig. 1. The study subjects included 328 patients with IS and 331 controls who were collected from the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities, Guangxi, China between January 2013 and September 2016. Detailed information of the study population was described in our previous work [9]. Briefly, IS was defined as an acute focal or global neurologic deficit that persisted for more than 24 h. IS diagnosis was confirmed by clinical symptoms, physical examinations and cranial computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke, traumatic brain injuries, cardiogenic thrombosis, brain tumors, and family history of stroke were excluded. Controls were enrolled from the Health Medical Center of the hospital during the same period. Those who had brain tumors, autoimmune diseases, haematological disorder, and family history of stroke were excluded. All the cases and controls were unrelated Han Chinese who resided in Guangxi province. Clinical data, such as age, gender, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) were obtained from medical record of the hospital.
Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the study. GWAS, genome-wide association study; IS, ischemic stroke; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphisms

Genotyping

Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples using the DNA extraction kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA). The chromosome 12p13 SNPs were genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay on an ABI 7900HT analyzer (Applied Biosystems, CA, USA). The SNP assay ID of rs12425791, rs11833579, and rs12904 was C__12094896_10, C__1665834_10, and C__191594_10, respectively. Approximately, 5% of all samples were randomly selected to be verified by Sanger sequencing, and the results were 100% consistent.

Statistical analysis

The chromosome 12p13 SNPs were tested for Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) among cases and controls using the chi-squared test. Continuous data were presented as mean ± standard deviation (SD) and compared using the Student’s t-test, while discrete data were presented as frequencies (percentages) and compared using the χ2 test. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association between chromosome 12p13 SNPs and IS risk after adjustments for age, gender, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and smoking using multivariate logistic regression. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analysis were performed using an online software SHEsis (http://analysis.bio-x.cn/myAnalysis.php) [22]. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results

Characteristics of the study population

The distributions of the demographic and clinical characteristics of the cases and controls are presented in Table 1. No significant difference was observed in age, gender, cigarette smoking, and TC levels between cases and controls. When compared to controls, IS patients had significantly higher levels of TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and Apo-B and lower levels of HDL-C and Apo-A1 (P <  0.001).
Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Variables

Controls, n = 331

Patients with IS, n = 328

P value

Age, years (± SD)

60.8 (± 11.2)

62.0 (± 11.4)

0.18

Male/ Female (%)

217 (65.6)/ 114 (34.4)

232 (70.7)/ 96 (29.3)

0.15

Hypertension, yes/no (%)

62 (18.7)/269 (81.3)

172 (52.4)/156 (47.6)

<  0.001

Type 2 diabetes, yes/no (%)

26 (7.9)/305 (92.1)

47 (14.3)/281 (85.7)

0.008

Smoking, yes/no (%)

86 (26.0)/245 (74.0)

101 (30.8)/227 (69.2)

0.17

TC, mmol/L

4.77 ± 0.78

4.67 ± 1.13

0.19

TG, mmol/L

1.33 ± 0.80

1.82 ± 1.57

<  0.001

HDL-C, mmol/L

1.52 ± 0.39

1.14 ± 0.33

<  0.001

LDL-C, mmol/L

2.34 ± 0.99

2.94 ± 0.95

<  0.001

VLDL-C, mmol/L

0.68 ± 0.50

0.85 ± 0.69

<  0.001

Apo-A1, g/L

1.77 ± 1.09

1.24 ± 0.26

<  0.001

Apo-B, g/L

0.76 ± 0.30

1.00 ± 0.30

<  0.001

IS ischemic stroke, SD standard deviation, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, VLDL-C very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo-A1 apolipoprotein A1; Apo-B apolipoprotein B

Main effect of chromosome 12p13 SNPs on IS risk

Genotype distributions of the chromosome 12p13 SNPs in cases and controls did not deviate from HWE (P > 0.05 for all loci). Table 2 displays the genotype and allelic frequencies of the three SNPs between cases and controls. The AG/GG genotype frequency of the rs12904 was 20.1% in cases and 28.4% in controls, and the P value of 0.03 after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44–0.95). The frequency of the rs12904 G allele was 11.0% in cases and 16.0% in controls, and the P value of 0.02 after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and smoking (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46–0.93). The other two loci (rs12425791 and rs11833579) showed no significant differences between IS cases and controls in either genotype or allelic analysis.
Table 2

Associaiton between chromosome 12p13 SNPs and risk of IS

Genotypes

Controls, n = 331 (%)

IS, n = 328 (%)

Adjusted OR (95% CI) a

Adjusted P value a

rs12425791

 GG

184 (55.6)

172 (52.4)

1.00

 

 AG/AA

147 (44.4)

156 (47.6)

1.02 (0.73–1.42)

0.90

 G

486 (73.4)

476 (72.6)

1.00

 

 A

176 (26.6)

180 (27.4)

1.00 (0.76–1.29)

0.97

rs11833579

 GG

161 (48.6)

171 (52.1)

1.00

 

 AG/AA

170 (51.4)

157 (47.9)

0.89 (0.64–1.24)

0.49

 G

452 (68.3)

467 (71.2)

1.00

 

 A

210 (31.7)

189 (28.8)

0.89 (0.69–1.14)

0.35

rs12904

 AA

237 (71.6)

262 (79.9)

1.00

 

 AG/GG

94 (28.4)

66 (20.1)

0.64 (0.44–0.95)

0.03

 A

556 (84.0)

584 (89.0)

1.00

 

 G

106 (16.0)

72 (11.0)

0.65 (0.46–0.93)

0.02

SNP single nucletide polymorphism, IS ischemic stroke, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval. aAdjusted by age, gender, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and smoking

Haplotype analysis

The LD measurement and haplotype construction were conducted in the current study. As shown in Table 3, the G-A-G haplotype had a trend to decrease the susceptibility of IS compared to the G-G-A haplotype. The difference, however, did not reach the significance, with the P value of 0.06 (OR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.28–1.02).
Table 3

Haplotype analysis of chromosome 12p13 SNPs with IS risk

rs12425791

rs11833579

rs12904

Controls (%)

IS (%)

OR (95% CI)

P value

G

G

A

286 (43.2)

311 (47.4)

1.00

 

G

A

A

132 (19.9)

120 (18.3)

0.84 (0.62–1.12)

0.23

A

G

A

97 (14.7)

106 (16.2)

1.01 (0.73–1.38)

0.98

A

A

A

41 (6.2)

47 (7.2)

1.05 (0.67–1.65)

0.82

G

G

G

42 (6.3)

30 (4.6)

0.66 (0.40–1.08)

0.10

A

G

G

27 (4.1)

20 (3.0)

0.68 (0.37–1.24)

0.21

G

A

G

26 (3.9)

15 (2.3)

0.53 (0.28–1.02)

0.06

A

A

G

11 (1.7)

7 (1.1)

0.59 (0.22–1.53)

0.27

SNP single nucletide polymorphism, IS ischemic stroke, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval

Combined analysis

Since the rs12904 AG/GG genotypes had a protective role against the risk of IS in single SNP association analysis, we evaluated whether rs12425791- rs12904 and rs11833579- rs12904 had combined effects on the risk of IS. As shown in Table 4, the frequencies of the combined genotypes of rs11833579AG/AA and rs12904AG/GG were 10.1% in cases and 7.6% in controls, with the P value of 0.02 (OR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34–0.93).
Table 4

Combined effects of chromosome 12p13 SNPs on the risk of IS

Combined genotypes

Controls (%)

IS (%)

OR (95% CI)

P value

rs12425791- rs12904

 rs12425791GG + rs12904AA

136 (41.1)

141 (43.0)

1.00

 

 rs12425791GG + rs12904AG/GG

48 (14.5)

31 (9.5)

0.62 (0.37–1.04)

0.07

 rs12425791AG/AA + rs12904AA

101 (30.5)

121 (36.9)

1.16 (0.81–1.65)

0.42

 rs12425791AG/AA + rs12904AG/GG

46 (13.9)

35 (10.7)

0.73 (0.45–1.21)

0.22

rs11833579- rs12904

 rs11833579GG + rs12904AA

117 (35.3)

138 (42.1)

1.00

 

 rs11833579GG + rs12904AG/GG

44 (6.7)

33 (10.1)

0.64 (0.38–1.06)

0.08

 rs11833579AG/AA + rs12904AA

120 (36.3)

124 (37.8)

0.88 (0.62–1.25)

0.46

 rs11833579AG/AA + rs12904AG/GG

50 (7.6)

33 (10.1)

0.56 (0.34–0.93)

0.02

SNP single nucletide polymorphism, IS ischemic stroke, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval

Discussion

In the current study, we evaluated the association between the rs12904 in the miR-200c binding site and IS risk. As miR-200c located on chromosome 12p13 that is a susceptibility loci of IS, we also performed a replication analysis of the 12p13 SNPs (i.e., rs11833579 and rs12425791) with the risk of IS. We found a significant difference in the distributions of the rs12904 AG/GG genotypes and G allele between cases and controls. Results from combined analysis showed that the combined genotypes of the rs11833579AG/AA and rs12904AG/GG decreased the risk of IS. These findings implicate that the rs12904 may be used as a biomarker for the etiology of IS.

Previously, GWAS identified 2 intergenic SNPs (i.e., rs12425791 and rs11833579) on chromosome 12p13, which contributed to the risk of IS in a Dutch population [16]. Subsequent studies, however, obtained conflicting results. Matsushita et al. reported that the rs12425791 was significantly associated with atherothrombotic stroke in a Japanese population [23], whereas Olsson et al. reported that the rs12425791 did not confer a substantial risk for IS in a Swedish population [17]. The conflicting results may not be explained by different ethnicities because inclusive results were also observed even in the same Chinese Han population. Wang et al. reported that the rs12425791 A was a risk allele for IS [24], while Tong et al. reported that the rs12425791 was not a risk factor for IS [18, 25]. Due to the limited samples of 182 cases and 66 controls, the results reported by Wang and colleagues may occur by chance. Meta-analysis was then performed to provide more precise data. Nevertheless, conflicting results were also found. In 2012, evidence from meta-analysis revealed that the rs12425791 was significantly associated with the risk of IS under a dominant genetic model [26, 27]. In contrast, an updated meta-analysis carried out in 2013 showed that no significant association between the rs12425791 and IS risk [28]. Similar to the negative data, we found in this study that the rs12425791 did not confer a substantial risk for IS in the Chinese Han population.

Regarding the rs11833579, some authors reported that the AA genotype increased the risk of IS [18, 29], while some authors reported an absence of association with IS [20, 2325, 30]. Consistent with the null results, in this study, we failed to find any association of the rs11833579 with IS risk. Some possibilities may be used for explaining the inconclusive results. All the study design was hospital-based, and the selection bias of controls cannot be ruled out. Moreover, gene-environment interaction may be a key event in the development of IS. Further population-based studies are required to confirm the results.

Since GWAS-discovered IS risk loci (rs12425791 and rs11833579) were not verified by our results, we speculated that potentially functional SNPs within chromosome 12p13 may contribute to the risk of IS. miR-200c, located on chromosome 12p13, was found to be upregulated after ischemia in animal model [1315]. Reduction of miR-200c can protect the brain from transient focal cerebral ischemia by targeting reelin or prolyl hydroxylase 2 [13, 14]. Previously, an SNP rs12904 was found to be functional, with the G > A change leading to altered regulation of luciferase expression and EFNA1 mRNA levels [21]. We therefore hypothesized that the rs12904 may be a risk factor for the pathogenesis of IS. Our findings confirmed this hypothesis. We found that the rs12904AG/GG genotypes had a 0.63-fold decreased risk of IS. Notably, we found that carriers with the combined genotypes of rs11833579AG/AA and rs12904AG/GG had a 0.56-fold decreased risk of IS. The more effective effect of the combined genotypes confirmed the idea that IS cannot be attributed to a single gene.

We have to admit some limitations in this study. The study design was hospital-based and there are possibilities of selection bias of study population. Most patients received lipids lowering treatments, which may influence the results in this study. It is demonstrated that nutraceuticals and functional food ingredients may reduce the incidence of stroke [3133]. In this study, however, these environmental factors were not available, and thus gene-environment interaction cannot be performed. Further studies solving these limitations are needed.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this is the first study reporting that the rs12904 AG/GG genotypes were associated with a reduced risk of IS. These findings suggest that the rs12904 in the miR-200c binding site may act as a biomarker for the development of IS in the Chinese population. Further studies are of great importance to understand the biologic function of the rs12904 in the progression of IS.

Abbreviations

3’UTR: 

3′-untranslated region

Apo-A1: 

Apolipoprotein A1

Apo-B: 

Apolipoprotein B

CIs: 

Confidence intervals

GDF-15: 

growth differentiation factor-15

GWAS: 

Genome-wide association study

HDL-C: 

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol

HWE: 

Hardy Weinberg equilibrium

IS: 

Ischemic stroke

LD: 

Linkage disequilibrium

LDL-C: 

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

miRNAs: 

microRNAs

OR: 

Odds ratio

SD: 

Standard deviation

SNPs: 

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

TC: 

Total cholesterol

TG: 

Triglyceride

Declarations

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all participants who agreed to participate in the study.

Funding

This study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation (No. 81560552), Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi, China (No. 2018GXNSFAA138120) and Key Research Projects of Guangxi, China (No. 2018AB58018).

Availability of data and materials

The datasets supporting the conclusions of this article are included within the article.

Authors’ contributions

WYS designed and revised the manuscript. ZZN performed experiments and drafted the manuscript. LLL and HYL helped to perform experiments. SX performed statistical analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The study protocol was approved by the Review Board of the Affiliated Hospital of Youjiang Medical University for Nationalities. All subjects signed informed consent to participate in the study.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, China
(2)
Department of Neonatology, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, China

References

  1. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, Chamberlain AM, Chang AR, Cheng S, Das SR, et al. Heart disease and stroke Statistics-2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2019:CIR0000000000000659.Google Scholar
  2. Goldstein LB, Adams R, Becker K, Furberg CD, Gorelick PB, Hademenos G, Hill M, Howard G, Howard VJ, Jacobs B, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a statement for healthcare professionals from the stroke Council of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2001;103:163–82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Warlow CP. Epidemiology of stroke. Lancet. 1998;352(Suppl 3):SIII1–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Oygarden H, Fromm A, Sand KM, Kvistad CE, Eide GE, Thomassen L, Naess H, Waje-Andreassen U. A family history of stroke is associated with increased intima-media thickness in young ischemic stroke - the Norwegian stroke in the young study (NOR-SYS). PLoS One. 2016;11:e0159811.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Siegerink B, Rosendaal FR, Algra A. Family history differs between young women with myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke: results from the RATIO case-control study. Atherosclerosis. 2012;223:235–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Choi JC, Lee JS, Kang SY, Kang JH, Bae JM. Family history and risk for ischemic stroke: sibling history is more strongly correlated with the disease than parental history. J Neurol Sci. 2009;284:29–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Jood K, Ladenvall C, Rosengren A, Blomstrand C, Jern C. Family history in ischemic stroke before 70 years of age: the Sahlgrenska Academy study on ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2005;36:1383–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Flossmann E, Schulz UG, Rothwell PM. Systematic review of methods and results of studies of the genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2004;35:212–27.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Lu YL, Wang R, Huang HT, Qin HM, Liu CH, Xiang Y, Wang CF, Luo HC, Wang JL, Lan Y, Wei YS. Association of S100B polymorphisms and serum S100B with risk of ischemic stroke in a Chinese population. Sci Rep. 2018;8:971.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Xiang Y, Zhang T, Guo J, Peng YF, Wei YS. The Association of Growth Differentiation Factor-15 gene polymorphisms with growth differentiation Factor-15 serum levels and risk of ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26:2111–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Wei YS, Xiang Y, Liao PH, Wang JL, Peng YF. An rs4705342 T>C polymorphism in the promoter of miR-143/145 is associated with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke. Sci Rep. 2016;6:34620.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Mathonnet G, Fabian MR, Svitkin YV, Parsyan A, Huck L, Murata T, Biffo S, Merrick WC, Darzynkiewicz E, Pillai RS, et al. MicroRNA inhibition of translation initiation in vitro by targeting the cap-binding complex eIF4F. Science. 2007;317:1764–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Stary CM, Xu L, Sun X, Ouyang YB, White RE, Leong J, Li J, Xiong X, Giffard RG. MicroRNA-200c contributes to injury from transient focal cerebral ischemia by targeting Reelin. Stroke. 2015;46:551–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee ST, Chu K, Jung KH, Yoon HJ, Jeon D, Kang KM, Park KH, Bae EK, Kim M, Lee SK, Roh JK. MicroRNAs induced during ischemic preconditioning. Stroke. 2010;41:1646–51.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Herzog R, Zendedel A, Lammerding L, Beyer C, Slowik A. Impact of 17beta-estradiol and progesterone on inflammatory and apoptotic microRNA expression after ischemia in a rat model. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;167:126–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Ikram MA, Seshadri S, Bis JC, Fornage M, DeStefano AL, Aulchenko YS, Debette S, Lumley T, Folsom AR, van den Herik EG, et al. Genomewide association studies of stroke. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:1718–28.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Olsson S, Melander O, Jood K, Smith JG, Lovkvist H, Sjogren M, Engstrom G, Norrving B, Lindgren A, Jern C. International stroke genetics C: genetic variant on chromosome 12p13 does not show association to ischemic stroke in 3 Swedish case-control studies. Stroke. 2011;42:214–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Tong Y, Zhang Y, Zhang R, Geng Y, Lin L, Wang Z, Liu J, Li X, Cao Z, Xu J, et al. Association between two key SNPs on chromosome 12p13 and ischemic stroke in Chinese Han population. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011;21:572–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhang Z, Xu G, Zhu W, Cao L, Bai W, Xiong Y, Yan B, Liu X. Chromosome 12p13 variants predict recurrence of ischaemic stroke in a Chinese population. Eur J Neurol. 2014;21:1400–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Ding H, Tu X, Xu Y, Xu C, Wang X, Cui G, Bao X, Hui R, Wang QK, Wang DW. No evidence for association of 12p13 SNPs rs11833579 and rs12425791 within NINJ2 gene with ischemic stroke in Chinese Han population. Atherosclerosis. 2011;216:381–2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Li Y, Nie Y, Cao J, Tu S, Lin Y, Du Y, Li Y. G-A variant in miR-200c binding site of EFNA1 alters susceptibility to gastric cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2014;53:219–29.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Shi YY, He L. SHEsis, a powerful software platform for analyses of linkage disequilibrium, haplotype construction, and genetic association at polymorphism loci. Cell Res. 2005;15:97–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsushita T, Umeno J, Hirakawa Y, Yonemoto K, Ashikawa K, Amitani H, Ninomiya T, Hata J, Doi Y, Kitazono T, et al. Association study of the polymorphisms on chromosome 12p13 with atherothrombotic stroke in the Japanese population. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:473–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Wang X, Zhang J, Liu Y, Zhang Y. Relationship between nerve injury-induced protein gene 2 polymorphism and stroke in Chinese Han population. J Biomed Res. 2011;25:287–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Tong Y, Zhan F, Han J, Zhang Y, Yin X, Geng Y, Hou S, Ye J, Guan X, Han S, et al. Lack of association between two key SNPs on chromosome 12p13 and ischemic stroke in Chinese Uyghur population. J Neurol Sci. 2012;323:52–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Li BH, Zhang LL, Yin YW, Pi Y, Guo L, Yang QW, Gao CY, Fang CQ, Wang JZ, Li JC. Association between 12p13 SNPs rs11833579/rs12425791 near NINJ2 gene and ischemic stroke in east Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis. J Neurol Sci. 2012;316:116–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Lian G, Yan Y, Jianxiong L, Juanjuan X, Qing C, Guangliang W, Li S. The rs11833579 and rs12425791 polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke in an Asian population: a meta-analysis. Thromb Res. 2012;130:e95–e102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Gu L, Su L, Chen Q, Xie J, Yan Y, Wu G, Tan J, Liang B, Dou W, Chen W, et al. Association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12425791 and ischemic stroke in Chinese populations: new data and meta-analysis. Int J Neurosci. 2013;123:359–65.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Zhang Z, Xu G, Zhu W, Bai W, Cao L, Xiong Y, Li M, Fan X, Li H, Ma M, et al. Chromosome 12p13 variants contribute to large artery atherosclerotic stroke risk in a Chinese population. J Neurol Sci. 2015;357:58–62.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Z, Xu G, Wei Y, Zhu W, Fan X, Liu X. Impact of chromosome 12p13 variants on ischemic stroke risk. Int J Neurosci. 2016;126:856–62.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Scicchitano P, Cameli M, Maiello M, Modesti PA, Muiesan ML, Novo S, Palmiero P, Saba PS, Pedrinelli R, Ciccone MM. Nutraceuticals and dyslipidaemia: beyond the common therapeutics. J Funct Foods. 2014;6:11–32.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Tang Z, Li M, Zhang X, Hou W. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e008680.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Adebamowo SN, Spiegelman D, Flint AJ, Willett WC, Rexrode KM. Intakes of magnesium, potassium, and calcium and the risk of stroke among men. Int J Stroke. 2015;10:1093–100.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2019

Advertisement