Clinical investigations have found that there was a close association between T2DM and adverse cardiovascular events, with possible mechanisms included inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism disorders. High serum GDF-15 concentration and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio (ApoB/ApoA1) are involved in the above-mentioned mechanisms and are thought to be related to the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events. However, it remains unclear whether circulating GDF-15 levels and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio are related to T2DM patients with CAD.
T2DM patients with or without CAD were eligible for this study. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 502 T2DM patients were enrolled between January 2021 and December 2021 and were then divided into T2DM group (n = 249) and CAD group (n = 253). The ApoB, ApoA1 and GDF-15 concentrations were measured at hospital admission and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was then calculated.
Compared with T2DM group, serum GDF-15 levels and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio increased in CAD group. Furthermore, a positive relationship between the occurrence of CAD in diabetic population and circulating GDF-15 concentrations and ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was observed in logistic regression analysis (p < 0.01). Restrictive cubic spline analysis after adjusted for multiple risky variables showed that serum GDF-15 or ApoB/ApoA1 ratio correlated positively with CAD.
Circulating GDF-15 levels and serum ApoB/ApoA1 ratio vary in CAD group and T2DM group. ApoB/ApoA1 and GDF-15 may be helpful for predicting the occurrence of CAD in patients with T2DM.