Open Access

Gene expression profiling and inhibition of adipose tissue accumulation of G. bimaculatus extract in rats on high fat diet

  • Mi Young Ahn1Email author,
  • Min-Ji Kim1,
  • Ryun Hee Kwon1,
  • Jae Sam Hwang1 and
  • Kun-Koo Park2
Lipids in Health and Disease201514:116

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-015-0113-3

Received: 28 May 2015

Accepted: 2 September 2015

Published: 24 September 2015

Abstract

Background

Molecular genetic mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract (GB) from G. bimaculatus, a type of cricket, are not fully elucidated. G. bimaculatus was reported to be rich in unsaturated fatty acid and to decrease the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio when fed to chickens. GB may reduce the amount of fat or increase the unsaturated fatty acid ratio.

Methods

Male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were orally administered with 5 groups: phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control), GB (100 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg), Pravastatin or Isaria sinclairii (IS) extract, which is reported to have fat-reducing effects, for either 1 or 2 months. GB’s sero-biochemial, hematological and anti-oxidizing hepato-cellular biomarker levels were evaluated to dertermine their antilipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-coagulant effect in rats after 1 or 2 month GB treatments on HFD (fat 60 %) Wistar rat. The abdominal and epididymidal fat weight were measured and the composition of fatty acid was analyzed by GC/MS. Microarray analyses were performed with a rat 28 K cDNA clone set array to identify the gene-expression profiles for the GB exposed high fat dieted Wistar rat.

Results

The weight and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat and epididymidal fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride in GB treated rats were at lower levels than those of the control group. The anti-oxidant hepato-cellular biomarker levels, protein carbonyl content and malondialdehyde concentration in GB treated rats were significantly decreased. Compared to the control, the GB treated rat group (treated at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg), had 190 up-regulated genes including Gpm6a (glycoprotein m6a), Tmem14a (transmembrane protein 14A) and Fasin (fatty acid synthase), with down-regulated 235 genes including Cc121b (chemokine ligand 21b), Glycan1 (glycosylation dependent cell adhesion moleule, Serpinb1a (serine proteinase inhibitor) and Tcrb (T-cell receptor beta chain).

Conclusion

The data suggest Fasin-related fatty acid synthesis and adipose differentiation related protein (Adfp), which is related to obesity, were upregulated by GB treatment, indicating their potential therapeutic markers for anti-atheriosclerosis or inflammation.

Keywords

Anti- atherosclerosis effect G. Bimaculatus extract Wistar rats 1-month treatments

Background

Obesity is a metabolic disorder and the fundamental cause of other fatal diseases including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, premature aging and cancer [1]. A high fat diet causes diseases such as obesity and changes the DNA gene expression profile [24].
Scheme 1

Animal experimental design

Cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) water extract is used in Oriental medicine as a crude drug for treating fever and hypertension, and crickets are currently reared as food for pets [5]. The main components of G. bimaculatus are protein (52.81 %), ash (minerals) and fat (21.81 %), including rich essential unsaturated conjugated fatty acids – such as palmitic acid (ω-7, 34.14 %), oleic acid (ω-9, 36.48 %), and linoleic acid (ω-6, 13.58 %) [6]. Water and methanol extracts from crickets were recently found to cause a significant decrease in blood ethanol concentrations by enhancing liver mitochondrial alcohol metabolizing enzymes [7]. The extracts also had protective effects against acute hepatic damage [8].

The fact that G. bimaculatus is abundant in unsaturated fatty acid and decrease of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio when fed to chickens suggest that G. bimaculatus may reduce fat or increase unsaturated fatty acid ratio in tissues [6]. The antioxidant effect of GB reported in previous studies may relieve the obese state or obese-related disorders. Recent studies report anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects are Isaria sinclairii (Cicada Dongchunghacho, a fungus cultured on silkworm) [911]. Pravastatin (a type of statins), lipid-lowering drug, especially hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, is widely used in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic diseases [12]. Therefore, we assessed the effects of GB compared its antilipidemic activity with I. sinclarii ethanol extract or Pravastain as positive controls. In this study, the fatty acid composition in abdominal fat tissue and epididymidal tissue of Wistar rats treated with GB was evaluated and compared to Isaria sinclaii [10] extract (IS100) and pravastatin (STA). A high fat diet (HFD) also can cause oxidative stress and was due to lipid peroxidation (malon dialdehyde increase), protein carbonyl content increase, and DNA damage.

We report the sero-biochemical and DNA micro array study of GB in HFD Wistar rats with regard to preventing oxidative stress to proteins, lipids and DNA. This GB holds great promise for use as an anti-obesity drug to decrease fat accumulation in people on high fat diets and prevent changes in liver fat. We demonstrate the potential efficacy of GB in the treatment of anti-lipidemic effect on a HFD rats to be a protective nutraceutical for atherosclerosis disorders, including circulatory disorders, showing gene expression profile with valuable prognostic marker to identify potential therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis and obesity.

Results

Clinical sign and food consumption

No deaths or adverse clinical signs were apparent due to the ingestion of the G. bimaculatus extract or pravastatin. The level of food consumption was similar in all treated groups during the course of the study (Fig. 1). Mean daily food intake was 26.6 g/kg bw/day.
Fig. 1

Food consumption changes in Wistar rats treated with GB on a high fat diet

Body weight and adipose fat weight changes

There were no toxicologically significant differences in mean body weight between any of the treatment groups (Fig. 2a). During the 1-month administration period, the body weights of the male Wistar rats in the 2 treatment groups were comparable in the control and trexperimental groups. The mean weekly body weights over time are presented in Fig. 2a. However, about 2 months after the experiment, body weight deviation between the groups increased, especially with the IS100 group. The body weight of the IS100 group continued to decrease for some time. The body weight of the IS100 group was significantly different from that of the control group (p < 0.05). At sacrifice, the abdominal fat tissues and the epididymidal fat tissues were dissected and weighed to investigate adipose tissue changes. The abdominal fat weight of HFD rats was significantly reduced by G. bimaculatus extract (200 mg/kg) (GB200) after 2 months of treatment: Con, 19.16 ± 3.04 g; GB100, 16.37 ± 1.46 (85.4 %); GB 200, 13.03 ± 1.37 g (68.0 %, GB200 vs Con, p < 0.05). Figure 2b also shows the declineof abdominal and epididymidal fat weight in HFD rats treated with GB for 1 month. The relative weight of epididymidal fat tissuedecreased to 75.0 % in GB200 after1 month of treatment. The total fat in GB100 and GB200 decreased by 77.9 and 73 % comparedto the CON (Fig. 2b). The fat-reducing effect of GB extract was better than that of pravastatin (STA) in rats.
Fig. 2

a Effect of GB on body weight in high fat (60 %) dieted rat over 2 months. GB100 (200): G. bimaculatus ethanol extract 100 (200) mg/kg. STA: Pravastatin 2 mg/kg. IS100: I. sinclairii ethanol extract 100 mg/kg. *: significant differences compared with CON group (*p < 0.05). b Effect of GB (1 month treatment) on abdominal and epididymidal fat weight on a high fat diet. *: significant differences compared with CON group (*p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001)

Serum biochemical analysis

The changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles after the 1-mo. feeding period are show in Table 1.
Table 1

Serological findings for ethanol extract from cricket in Wistar rats on high fat diet over a 1-month treatment period

Item

Unit

CON

GB100

STA

IS100

phospholipid

mg/dL

151.50 ± 17.06

152.00 ± 19.95

178.80 ± 20.20

123.40 ± 10.48

FFA

mEq/L

507.75 ± 45.46

465.75 ± 57.94

532.40 ± 81.22

526.20 ± 126.11

Insulin

mU/ml

<0.2 ± 0.0

<0.2 ± 0.0

<0.2 ± 0.0

<0.2 ± 0.0

Albumin

g/dL

4.05 ± 0.24

3.37 ± 0.21

3.94 ± 0.25

3.48 ± 0.260

T. Bil

mg/dL

0.125 ± 0.05

0.1 ± 0

0.1 ± 0.0

0.14 ± 0.09

ALP

IU/L

133.25 ± 40.46

79.75 ± 13.43

107.50 ± 63.16

168.60 ± 106.11

AST

IU/L

100.5 ± 14.30

143 ± 96.23

116.61 ± 9.36

168.33 ± 25.0

ALT

IU/L

41 ± 6.48

71.25 ± 67.86

49.80 ± 10.23

100.80 ± 80.83

IP

mg/dL

21.48 ± 2.07

14.60 ± 2.32a

14.66 ± 1.34

11.14 ± 1.88

yGT

g/dL

<0.3 ± 0.0

<0.3 ± 0.0

<0.3 ± 0.0

<0.3 ± 0.0

CK

IU/L

257.5 ± 79.37

205.50 ± 44.35

377.60 ± 88.71

236.00 ± 93.74

LDH

IU/L

1475.25 ± 311.35

1206.75 ± 375.44

1567.20 ± 344.29

1342.00 ± 344.95

Glucose(S)

mg/dL

340.75 ± 26.48

225.00 ± 49.03

317.00 ± 85.46

213.40 ± 52.18

T. Chol

mg/dL

105.5 ± 7.33

110.25 ± 21.04

117.80 ± 22.40

83.80 ± 12.28

TG

mg/dL

167 ± 33.97

112.75 ± 20.2

151.60 ± 53.35

91.80 ± 40.44

LDL Chol

mg/dL

22.25 ± 4.34

32.25 ± 10.37

24.80 ± 9.20

18.00 ± 6.52

BUN

mg/dL

23.55 ± 1.25

16.2 ± 2.20

22.42 ± 2.27

27.68 ± 5.18

HDL Chol

mg/dL

79 ± 7.75

73.5 ± 7.05

88.20 ± 15.74

63.80 ± 12.99

Creatinine

mg/dL

0.59 ± 0.04

0.501 ± 0.09

0.61 ± 0.09

0.86 ± 0.15

Uric acid

mg/dL

6.18 ± 1.71

5.33 ± 0.22

5.48 ± 1.44

5.88 ± 0.84

Na

nmol/L

127.25 ± 4.65

133.75 ± 5.68

133.40 ± 2.61

133.80 ± 2.78

K

nmol/L

26.78 ± 8.73

20.13 ± 4.02

21.04 ± 1.85

18.86 ± 2.96

Cl

nmol/L

93.5 ± 2.89

95.00 ± 3.16

95.20 ± 2.59

94.40 ± 2.61

T. protein

g/dL

6.75 ± 0.5

6.35 ± 0.42

6.54 ± 0.39

6.38 ± 0.47

CRP(HS)

mg/L

1.68 ± 0.05

0.53 ± 0.25

1.58 ± 0.40

1.16 ± 0.50

Calcium

nmol/L

12.40 ± 0.64

11.90 ± 0.62

12.34 ± 0.87

12.12 ± 0.40

FFA free fatty acid, T. Bil total bilirubin, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AST(GOT) glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, ALT(GPT) glutamate pyruvate transaminase, IP inorganic phosphorus, GGT γ-glutamyl transferase, CK creatinine phosphokinase, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, Na Sodium, K potassium, Cl chloride, BUN blood urea nitrogen, T. Chol total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, H. Chol high cholesterol, l.Chol low cholesterol, Ca calcium, CRP c-reactive protein

Each value represents mean ± S.D. Statistically significant from control (* P < 0.05)

CON: PBS (vehicle) treated with murine high fat diet

The data obtained clearly show that high-fat diet ingestion increased the concentration of serum triglyceride and serum triglyceride was decreased in the GB100 experimental rats [control, 167.00 ± 33.97 mg/dL; GB100, 112.75 ± 20.2 mg/dL (GB100 vs Con p < 0.05); STA, 151.60 ± 53.35 mg/dL]. Serum glucose levels were lower in the GB-treated group than in the control Serum glucose levels were lower in the GB-treated group than in the control (control, 340.75 ± 26.48 mg/dL; GB100, 225.00 ± 49.03 mg/dL (GB100 vs Con, p < 0.05); Provastastin (STA), 317.00 ± 85.46 mg/dL; IS100, 213.40 ± 52.18 mg/dL). Analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels showed meaningful anti-edema effect with the inhibition of CRP, but the results had no significance (control, 1.68 ± 0.05 mg/L; GB100, 0.53 ± 0.25 mg/L; STA, 1.58 ± 0.40 mg/L; IS100, 1.16 ± 0.5 mg/L). Also, in the sera of GB100-treated rats, free fatty acid (FFA) levels were lower than in the control (control 507.75 ± 4.46 mEq/L; GB100, 465.75 ± 57.094 mEq/L; STA, 532.40 ± 81.22 mEq/L; IS100 526.20 ± 126.11 mEq/L). Triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the GB treated rats compared to the control as follows: control, 167.0 ± 33.97 mg/dL; GB100, 112.75 ± 20.2 mg/dL (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05); STA, 151.60 ± 53.35 mg/dL; IS100, 91.80 ± 40.44 mg/dL. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels of the treated groups were lower in the high fat diet fed rats (control, 133.25 ± 40.46; GB100, 79.75 ± 13.43 (control, 133.25 ± 40.46 IU/L; GB100, 79.75 ± 13.43 IU/L (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05); STA, 107.50 ± 63.16 IU/L; IS100, 168.60 ± 106.11 IU/L.

The changes in serum lipid and lipoprotein profiles in HFD rats after GB 2 months of treatment are show in Table 2.
Table 2

Serological findings for GB in Wistar rats on high fat diet over a 2-month treatment period

Item

Unit

CON

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

Total protein

g/dL

6.63 ± 0.18

6.75 ± 0.55

6.95 ± 0.18

6.84 ± 0.15

7.00 ± 0.11

Bilirubin

mg/dL

below 0.1

below 0.1

below 0.1

below 0.1

below 0.1

ALP

U/L

38.67 ± 4.73

38.00 ± 4.24

42.75 ± 7.14

39.00 ± 3.16

42.75 ± 8.26

AST

U/L

145.00 ± 28.58

128.50 ± 21.92

144.00 ± 98.18

96.60 ± 18.23

122.50 ± 51.86

ALT

U/L

46.67 ± 1.53

47.50 ± 10.61

81.75 ± 33.31

36.60 ± 13.13

28.50 ± 4.36

GGT

U/L

below 3

below 3

below 3

below 3

below 3

CK

U/L

607.00 ± 188.07

438.00 ± 61.00

676.25 ± 203.71

382.00 ± 36.56

256.00 ± 37.45

LDH

U/L

1577.33 ± 241.14

1830.50 ± 281.50

1897.25 ± 273.26

1179.00 ± 202.53

916.50 ± 93.39

Na

mmol/L

148.50 ± 1.32

151.50 ± 1.50

147.75 ± 1.31

147.40 ± 0.40

145.25 ± 0.85

K

mmol/L

11.20 ± 1.19

9.40 ± 2.40

10.68 ± 1.18

9.24 ± 0.95

10.43 ± 0.81

Cl

mmol/L

97.00 ± 1.08

99.00 ± 3.00

96.75 ± 1.49

98.40 ± 0.87

97.25 ± 1.03

Creatine

mg/dL

0.80 ± 0.03

0.69 ± 0.12

0.79 ± 0.05

0.72 ± 0.03

0.92 ± 0.06

BUN

mg/dL

16.57 ± 0.27

17.00 ± 0.00

19.78 ± 1.29

13.92 ± 0.46

25.73 ± 2.41

Uric acid

mg/dL

3.83 ± 0.48

7.85 ± 0.55

6.53 ± 0.47

6.08 ± 0.56

5.90 ± 0.33

T.Chol

mg/dL

106.00 ± 8.08

110.50 ± 24.50

93.00 ± 3.61

84.40 ± 3.37

100.75 ± 8.00

H.Chol

mg/dL

89.67 ± 6.17

95.50 ± 18.50

79.67 ± 2.40

74.60 ± 2.58

89.25 ± 6.16

L.Chol

mg/dL

21.00 ± 2.00

21.00 ± 17.67

17.67 ± 0.67

15.60 ± 0.81

20.00 ± 2.12

TG

mg/dL

100.50 ± 11.86

100.50 ± 0.50

101.33 ± 20.02

87.20 ± 9.25

54.25 ± 4.01

Glucose

mg/dL

187.67 ± 2.19

163.00 ± 18.00

192.75 ± 67.45

252.00 ± 29.43

198.75 ± 30.38

Ca

mg/dL

11.57 ± 0.07

11.70 ± 0.70

12.05 ± 0.37

12.30 ± 0.42

12.53 ± 0.37

IP

mg/dL

21.10 ± 1.07

19.25 ± 2.25

19.68 ± 1.77

14.44 ± 1.60

11.18 ± 0.85

FFA

uEq/L

907.49 ± 191.70

1071.50 ± 42.50

931.00 ± 81.12

855.00 ± 122.43

738.00 ± 51.22

Each value represents mean ± S.E. statistically significant from control (* P < 0.05)

The obtained data clearly show that high-fat diet consumption increased the concentration of serum total cholesterol, TG, and LDL-cholesterol in addition to decreasing the HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the experimental rats after 2 months of treatment. Total cholesterol, LDL- cholesterol, TG, and total lipid in the GB-treated group were lower than in the control group. HDL-cholesterol in the GB-treated group was higher than in the control group.

Serum glucose levels were lower in the GB-treated group than in the control (control, 187.67 ± 2.19 mg/dL; GB100, 163.00 ± 18.00 mg/dL; GB200, 192.75 ± 67.45 mg/dL; STA, 252.00 ± 29.43 mg/dL (STA vs CON, p < 0.05); IS100, 198.75 ± 30.38 mg/dL). In the sera of the GB treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were lower, while HDL-cholesterol was higher than in the control after 2 months. Dose-dependent changes were observed in rats on high-fat diets although there were no significant differences compared with the control group (Fig. 3).
Fig. 3

Effect of GB on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol level in High fat diet rats (2 month GB treatment)

Hematology and blood chemical analysis

Some dose-dependent changes were observed between the treated and control groups with respect to the hematological parameters at the end of the experiment. An increase in partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time was observed in the treated groups on high fat diets but without significant differences. Minor changes were found in hematological parameters (hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and factor I) for some GB-treated rat groups. However, the effects of GB were not considered adverse because all changes in hematological data including neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and eosinophil were within the normal physiological range. The platelet count of the IS100 group was increased compared to the CON group (p < 0.05) (Table 3).
Table 3

Hematological findings for extract from cricket in Wistar rats on high fat diet over a 2-month treatment period

 

Unit

CON

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

WBC

103/μl

535 ± 0.54

6.67 ± 1.56

6.28 ± 0.75

4.60 ± 0.35

7.3 ± 0.56

RBC

10μl

8.15 ± 0.09

8.65 ± 0.71

9.04 ± 0.20

8.83 ± 0.19

8.56 ± 0.11

Hgb

g/dL

1496 ± 0.29

15.10 ± 0.50

15.75 ± 0.22

15.78 ± 0.20

14.83 ± 0.09

Hct

%

50.16 ± 1.01

51.50 ± 2.60

53.68 ± 0.88

53.26 ± 0.76

49.65 ± 0.43

MCV

fL

6156 ± 1.15

59.70 ± 1.90

59.43 ± 0.72

60.40 ± 0.76

58.03 ± 0.95

MCH

pg

18.18 ± 0.49

17.55 ± 0.85

17.40 ± 0.36

17.92 ± 0.24

17.30 ± 0.30

MCHC

g/dL

29.84 ± 0.25

29.35 ± 0.45

29.30 ± 0.27

29.64 ± 0.16

29.85 ± 0.14

PLT

103/μl

974.00 ± 67.06

938.50 ± 216.50

1044.00 ± 63.44

954.80 ± 38.77

1240.25 ± 24.32

PTT

sec

98.06 ± 18.58

107.80 ± 36.20

76.03 ± 11.13

74.70 ± 7.26

59.50 ± 12.03

Thrombin time

sec

60.10 ± 13.69

63.40 ± 22.10

53.40 ± 11.06

47.70 ± 6.08

50.90 ± 9.49

Factor I

mg/dL

194.00 ± 3012

216.50 ± 9.50

245.75 ± 18.36

214.60 ± 26.21

247.75 ± 13.03

PT

sce

5.66 ± 0.16

1.59 ± 0.11

1.53 ± 0.04

1.48 ± 0.06

1.46 ± 0.07

Neutrophil

%

21.70 ± 334

13.10 ± 0.60

16.83 ± 2.28

16.72 ± 1.66

18.23 ± 1.89

Lymphocyte

%

75.43 ± UJ oo

85.55 ± 0.55

81.48 ± 2.49

81.22 ± 1.84

79.78 ± 2.08

Monocyte

%

0.90 ± 0.19

0.35 ± 0.05

0.43 ± 0.14

0.64 ± 0.10

0.68 ± 0.19

Eosinophil

%

1.62 ± 0.13

0.85 ± 0.05

1.03 ± 0.13

1.04 ± 0.15

0.88 ± 0.08

Basophil

%

0.34 ± 0.08

0.15 ± 0.05

0.25 ± 0.06

0.38 ± 0.07

158 ± 1.14

WBC white blood cell, RBC red blood cell, Hgb hemoglobin, Hct hematocrit, MCV mean corpuscular volume, MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin, MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, PLT partial thromboplastin time, PT prothrombin time

CON: PBS (as a vehicle) treated with high fat diet

Each value represents mean ± S.E. Statistically significant from control (P* < 0.05)

Oxidative protein damage (carbonyl content and catalase) quantitation

Protein oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content in the blood (Fig. 4). Catalase activity and carbonyl content were assayed as the biomarkers of protein oxidative damage in the high fat dieted rat model.
Fig. 4

Anti-oxidative effect of GB on lipids (MDA or IL-6) and proteins (carbonyl or catalase content) after 2-month treatment. Each value represents mean ± S.D. statistically significant from control (*P < 0.05)

After 2 months, carbonyl content level was decreased by GB treatment: CON, 12.6 ± 1.1 nmol/mg protein; GB100, 10.4 ± 2.7 nmol/mg protein; GB200 (GB200 vs CON, P < 0.05), 6.8 ± 2.8 nmol/mg protein; STA, 9.8 ± 4.0 nmol/mg protein; IS100, 5.1 ± 1.6 nmol/mg protein (IS100 vs CON, P < 0.05). The protein carbonyl content in the blood was reduced in a dose-dependent manner after extract treatments for 2 months. The protein carbonyl concentration was decreased by 82 and 53 % in GB100 and GB200, respectively (Fig. 4).

The catalase activity (Ug/protein) after 2 months of GB treatment was as follows: CON, 0.016 ± 0.001 U/mg protein; GB100, 0.017 ± 0.004 U/mg protein; GB200, 0.014 ± 0.001 U/mg protein; STA (2 mg/kg), 0.014 ± 0.002 U/mg protein; IS100, 0.016 ± 0.002 U/mg protein in hepatocytes (Fig. 4). The catalase activity in all hepatocyte groups was not affected.

Oxidative lipid damage (malondialdehyde) quantitation

As a lipid oxidative damage marker in lipid oxidative stress states, malondialdehyde level (MDA, nmol/mg/protein) was assayed after 2 months of GB treatment: PBS (CON), 3.44 ± 0.47 nmol/mg/protein; GB 100, 0.23 ± 0.31 (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05) nmol/mg/protein, GB 200, 1.92 ± 0.87 nmol/mg/protein (GB200 vs CON, p < 0.05); STA, 2.83 ± 1.33 nmol/mg/protein; IS100, 3.00 ± 0.22 nmol/mg/protein (Fig. 4). Pravastatin (STA) and IS100 did not affect the lipid peroxidation in hepatocytes.

Cytokine IL-10 production

Decrease of serum IL-10 level was observed in the GB-treated group. IL-10 activity after 2 months of GB treatment in HFD rat serum was as follows: PBS: 670.5 ± 96.1 pg/ml serum, GB 100: 492.0 ± 66.6 pg/ml serum (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05), GB 200: 598.1 ± 51.8 pg/ml serum, STA: 590.7 ± 12.2 pg/ml serum, IS100: 862.4 ± 126.6 pg/ml serum (Fig. 4). STA and IS100 had no statistical differences compared with the CON group.

DNA microarray

Microarray analysis using a Mouse 28 K cDNA clone set array was performed to identify the gene-expression profiles in the GB treated Wistar rat livers and provided information on potential markers for atherosclerosis. Compared to the control group, the GB treated rats showed 419 (200 mg/kg) and 430 (100 mg/kg) up-regulated genes (15 % increase), and the signal ratio increased from 1.15-fold to 3.28-fold. Gpm6a (glycoprotein m6a), Tmem14a (transmembrane protein 14A) and Fasin (fatty acid synthase) were up-regulated and 421 genes (ratio 0.47 ~ 0.85) including Cc121b (chemokine ligand 21b), Glycan1 (glycosylation dependent cell adhesion moleule, Serpinb1a (serine proteinase inhibitor) and Tcrb (T-cell receptor beta chain) were down-regulated. The data suggests that Fasin related fatty acid synthesis and Adfp, an adipose differentiation related protein associated with obesity, were upregulated by GB treatment. However, a series of genes involved in signal transduction, fatty acid synthesis, energy metabolism (oxidative metabolism) and cellular defenses were more up-regulated, indicating their potential as therapeutic markers for lipid metabolism (Tables 4 and 5).
Table 4

Upregulated genes differentially expressed in liver tissue of high fat diet rats treated with G. bimaculatus extract over a 1-month period

 

G100a

G200b

Gene title

Gene symbol

1

0.891

1.916

glycoprotein m6a

Gpm6a

2

0.957

1.767

transmembrane protein 14A

Tmem14a

3

1.300

1.416

fatty acid synthase

Fasn

4

0.993

1.396

RT1 class I, locus CE5

RT1-CE5

5

1.370

1.393

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5

Uba5

6

0.617

1.372

RT1 class Ib, locus EC2

RT1-EC2

7

1.101

1.358

TWIST neighbor

Twistnb

8

1.303

1.345

coagulation factor C homolog, cochlin

Coch

9

1.497

1.343

X-linked Kx blood group (McLeod syndrome) homolog

Xk

10

1.171

1.341

dedicator of cytokinesis 11

Dock11

11

0.945

1.335

amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 1

Aplp1

12

0.853

1.334

D site of albumin promoter binding protein

Dbp

13

0.794

1.326

RT1 class I, locus CE11-like /// RT1 class I, locus A3

LOC100364500

14

1.860

1.319

Sumo1/sentrin/SMT3 specific peptidase 5

Senp5

15

1.125

1.316

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, isoform 1b

Pafah1b1

16

1.032

1.306

isoprenoid synthase domain containing

Ispd

17

1.163

1.288

osteoglycin

Ogn

18

1.273

1.280

myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance 2

Mx2

19

0.957

1.276

similar to KIAA0802 protein

RGD1308319

20

1.170

1.276

echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 2

Eml2

21

1.061

1.275

Rab40b, member RAS oncogene family

Rab40b

22

1.099

1.268

Complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 3

C1ql3

23

1.399

1.266

family with sequence similarity 135, member A

Fam135a

24

1.377

1.266

Adipose differentiation related protein

Adfp

25

1.091

1.264

acylphosphatase 2, muscle type

Acyp2

26

1.058

1.259

RAD23 homolog B (S. cerevisiae)

Rad23b

27

1.141

1.258

cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily v, polypeptide 3

Cyp4v3

28

1.113

1.256

Opticin

Optc

29

0.961

1.255

ubiquitin D

Ubd

30

1.038

1.253

nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 3

Nap1l3

31

1.168

1.252

protocadherin alpha 1 /// protocadherin alpha 10

Pcdha1

32

1.183

1.251

similar to CG12279-PA

LOC500420

33

1.058

1.249

solute carrier family 31 (copper transporters), member 1

Slc31a1

34

0.979

1.248

stem-loop binding protein

Slbp

35

1.026

1.242

O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase-like 1

Osgepl1

36

1.060

1.240

ring finger protein 141

rnf141

37

1.006

1.240

caveolin 2 /// caveolin 2-like

Cav2

38

1.025

1.240

major facilitator superfamily domain containing 9

Mfsd9

39

0.991

1.238

chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9

Cxcl9

40

1.237

1.237

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2

Ppp4r2

aGB100/control ratio

bGB200/control ratio

Table 5

Downregulated genes differentially expressed in liver tissue of high fat diet rats treated with GB over a 1-month period

 

GB100a

GB200b

Gene title

Gene symbol

1

0.478

0.472

chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21b

Ccl21b

2

0.563

0.563

glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1

Glycam1

3

0.610

0.583

serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade B, member Serpinb1a

4

0.625

0.599

T-cell receptor beta chain

Tcrb

5

0.755

0.618

Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1

Lef1

6

0.615

0.646

T-cell receptor beta chain

Tcrb

7

0.646

0.658

immunoglobulin heavy chain 6

Igh-6

8

0.699

0.658

CD3 molecule, gamma polypeptide

Cd3g

9

0.680

0.680

coronin, actin binding protein 1A

Coro1a

10

0.687

0.687

SATB homeobox 1

Satb1

11

0.623

0.695

similar to RIKEN cDNA A430107P09

LOC100364854

12

0.717

0.701

Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 3

Faim3

13

0.703

0.715

lumican

Lum

14

0.924

0.722

interleukin 7 receptor

Il7r

15

0.815

0.731

SATB homeobox 1

Satb1

16

0.869

0.740

CD3 molecule, epsilon polypeptide

Cd3e

17

0.819

0.742

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5C

Arl5c

18

0.749

0.749

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C

Ptprc

19

0.889

0.755

cancer susceptibility candidate 1

Casc1

20

0.879

0.758

LIM domain containing 2

Limd2

21

0.901

0.760

bromodomain containing 4

Brd4

22

1.007

0.764

proenkephalin

Penk

23

0.776

0.765

hypothetical protein LOC100364588

LOC100364588

24

0.915

0.768

phospholipase D1

Pld1

25

0.777

0.769

immunoglobulin joining chain

Igj

26

0.941

0.769

sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, alpha subunit

Scn4a

27

0.806

0.770

Zinc finger protein 710

Znf710

28

0.729

0.770

thyroid hormone receptor beta

Thrb

29

0.926

0.774

transition protein 2

Tnp2

30

0.822

0.774

SWI/SNF-related matrix-aa-dependent regulator of c2

LOC685179

31

0.958

0.774

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 1

Pcdhga1

32

0.821

0.776

tubulin, beta 2c

Tubb2c

33

0.938

0.776

galanin receptor 2

Galr2

34

0.838

0.777

matrix metallopeptidase 12

Mmp12

35

0.777

0.777

SAM and SH3 domain containing 3

Sash3

36

0.771

0.777

TBC1 domain family, member 10C

Tbc1d10c

37

0.981

0.779

2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase-like

Oasl

38

0.764

0.779

similar to immunoglobulin light chain variable region

RGD1564318

39

0.812

0.779

POU class 2 associating factor 1

Pou2af1

40

0.783

0.783

CD3 molecule delta polypeptide

Cd3d

aGB100/control ratio

bGB200/control ratio

Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue

The fatty acid profile, as indicated GC-MS, showed a slight dose-dependent increase in arachidonic acid (C20: 4n6, AFA) concentration in the epididymidal of male Wistar rats in the GB- treated groups over a 2-month period compared to the control group (Table 6). The high fat dieted Wistar rats treated with GB showed increases in the unsaturated fatty acids (FA) ratio, especially single (mono) FA, but had decreases in saturated fatty acid (Tables 6 and 7).
Table 6

Analysis of fatty acid composition in abdominal fat of Wistar rats on high fat diets treated with G. bimaculatus extract for 1 month

Comp. of abdominal fat tissue (%)

PBS

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

Lauric acid (C12:0)

0.04 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00*

0.05 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00*

0.04 ± 0.00

Myristoleic acid (C14:1)

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00*

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

Myristic acid (C14:0)

0.72 ± 0.03

0.74 ± 0.04

0.64 ± 0.13

0.66 ± 0.02

0.69 ± 0.01

Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)

0.12 ± 0.00

0.12 ± 0.00

0.24 ± 0.12

0.12 ± 0.00

0.12 ± 0.01

Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)

1.37 ± 0.14

1.52 ± 0.22

1.76 ± 0.07*

1.18 ± 0.17

1.31 ± 0.04

Palmitic acid (C16:0)

21.49 ± 0.49

21.42 ± 0.59

21.46 ± 0.39

21.20 ± 0.14

20.85 ± 0.17

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0)

0.29 ± 0.01

0.28 ± 0.01

0.29 ± 0.01

0.33 ± 0.01*

0.30 ± 0.01

Linoleic acid (C18:2)

34.37 ± 2.80

35.24 ± 0.91

35.50 ± 0.27

31.56 ± 0.92

34.70 ± 0.90

Oleic acid (C18:1)

33.56 ± 2.35

32.94 ± 0.89

32.33 ± 0.57

35.84 ± 0.88

33.79 ± 0.89

Stearic acid (C18:0)

6.92 ± 0.13

6.72 ± 0.37

6.75 ± 0.17

7.90 ± 0.21*

7.09 ± 0.20

Arachidonic acid (C20:4)

0.20 ± 0.06

0.14 ± 0.02

0.13 ± 0.01

0.19 ± 0.00

0.19 ± 0.04

Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5)

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

0.01 ± 0.00

Eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3)

0.06 ± 0.01

0.05 ± 0.01

0.05 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.01

Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2)

0.25 ± 0.00

0.25 ± 0.03

0.24 ± 0.01

0.29 ± 0.00*

0.24 ± 0.01

Eicosenoic acid (C20:1)

0.37 ± 0.01

0.38 ± 0.04

0.39 ± 0.01

0.43 ± 0.01*

0.41 ± 0.01

Eicosanoic acid (C20:0)

0.09 ± 0.01

0.09 ± 0.01

0.09 ± 0.01

0.10 ± 0.00

0.10 ± 0.01

Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)

0.11 ± 0.08

0.04 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.01

0.09 ± 0.04

Saturated fatty acid

29.66 ± 0.59

29.41 ± 0.39

29.52 ± 0.40

30.36 ± 0.18

29.19 ± 0.28

Unsaturated fatty acid

70.34 ± 0.59

70.59 ± 0.39

70.48 ± 0.40

69.64 ± 0.18

70.81 ± 0.28

Single unsaturated fatty acid

35.33 ± 1.06

34.86 ± 1.22

34.50 ± 2.53

37.47 ± 2.23

35.52 ± 0.42

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

35.02 ± 2.73

35.73 ± 0.88

35.98 ± 0.29

32.16 ± 0.93

35.29 ± 0.93

Comp. of epididymidal fat tissue (%)

PBS

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

Lauric acid (C12:0)

0.04 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

Myristoleic acid (C14:1)

0.02 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

Myristic acid (C14:0)

0.70 ± 0.04

0.78 ± 0.02

0.74 ± 0.01

0.75 ± 0.01

0.73 ± 0.03

Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)

0.12 ± 0.01

0.14 ± 0.01

0.14 ± 0.00*

0.13 ± 0.00

0.14 ± 0.01

Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)

1.66 ± 0.15

1.77 ± 0.07

1.83 ± 0.05

1.76 ± 0.06

1.73 ± 0.11

Palmitic acid (C16:0)

21.89 ± 0.40

21.82 ± 0.17

21.95 ± 0.21

20.66 ± 0.20*

20.73 ± 0.12

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0)

0.26 ± 0.01

0.27 ± 0.01

0.27 ± 0.00

0.28 ± 0.01

0.28 ± 0.01

Linoleic acid (C18:2)

36.05 ± 0.96

38.21 ± 1.19

37.86 ± 0.60

39.68 ± 1.24*

38.29 ± 0.08

Oleic acid (C18:1)

32.41 ± 0.65

30.19 ± 1.23

30.69 ± 0.52

29.48 ± 1.00*

31.27 ± 0.27

Stearic acid (C18:0)

5.94 ± 0.07

5.87 ± 0.09

5.57 ± 0.07*

6.14 ± 0.13

5.75 ± 0.03

Arachidonic acid (C20:4)

0.16 ± 0.01

0.13 ± 0.03

0.15 ± 0.00

0.21 ± 0.03

0.19 ± 0.01

Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5)

0.01 ± 0.01

0.02 ± 0.01

0.03 ± 0.00*

0.03 ± 0.00*

0.03 ± 0.00

Eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3)

0.06 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00

0.07 ± 0.00

0.07 ± 0.01

Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2)

0.25 ± 0.01

0.25 ± 0.01

0.23 ± 0.01

0.28 ± 0.01

0.27 ± 0.02

Eicosenoic acid (C20:1)

0.33 ± 0.01

0.32 ± 0.01

0.30 ± 0.00*

0.34 ± 0.01

0.33 ± 0.01

Eicosanoic acid (C20:0)

0.06 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00

Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)

0.03 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00*

0.06 ± 0.02

0.07 ± 0.00*

Saturated fatty acid

29.01 ± 0.38

28.98 ± 0.18

28.76 ± 0.16

28.06 ± 0.32

27.71 ± 0.16

Unsaturated fatty acid

70.99 ± 0.38

71.02 ± 0.18

71.24 ± 0.16

71.94 ± 0.32

72.29 ± 0.16

Single unsaturated fatty acid

34.42 ± 0.71

32.32 ± 1.26

32.86 ± 0.54

31.61 ± 0.97

33.36 ± 0.15

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

36.57 ± 0.97

38.71 ± 1.15

38.38 ± 0.59

40.33 ± 1.29

38.93 ± 0.05

Each value represents mean ± SE

Asterisk marks (*) mean significant differences compared with control (PBS) group (p < 0.05)

Table 7

Analysis of fatty acid composition in abdominal fat of Wistar rats on a high fat diet treated with G. bimaculatus extract for 2 months

Comp. of abdomianlfat tissue (%)

PBS

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

Lauric acid (C12:0)

0.04 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.01

Myristoleic acid (C14:1)

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

0.02 ± 0.00

Myristic acid (C14:0)

0.78 ± 0.04

0.77 ± 0.08

0.81 ± 0.06

0.78 ± 0.01

0.88 ± 0.08

Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)

0.13 ± 0.00

0.14 ± 0.00*

0.14 ± 0.02

0.15 ± 0.01

0.15 ± 0.00*

Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)

1.74 ± 0.33

1.98 ± 0.22

1.93 ± 0.12

2.08 ± 0.20

1.86 ± 0.23

Palmitic acid (C16:0)

19.01 ± 0.57

18.85 ± 0.61

19.85 ± 1.05

18.25 ± 0.94

19.57 ± 1.27

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0)

0.35 ± 0.04

0.40 ± 0.03

0.46 ± 0.03

0.37 ± 0.03

0.44 ± 0.03

Linoleic acid (C18:2)

36.15 ± 1.91

40.11 ± 2.23

37.26 ± 6.88

40.18 ± 0.89

38.90 ± 1.91

Oleic acid (C18:1)

32.10 ± 2.20

28.12 ± 0.80

28.54 ± 5.66

28.88 ± 1.53

26.16 ± 1.08

Stearic acid (C18:0)

8.29 ± 0.45

8.35 ± 0.69

9.28 ± 0.33

7.86 ± 0.69

10.16 ± 0.38*

Arachidonic acid (C20:4)

0.20 ± 0.04

0.18 ± 0.05

0.24 ± 0.02

0.24 ± 0.04

0.32 ± 0.07

Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5)

0.04 ± 0.01

0.03 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.00

0.03 ± 0.00

0.04 ± 0.01

Eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3)

0.08 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.02

0.08 ± 0.01

0.08 ± 0.01

0.09 ± 0.02

Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2)

0.35 ± 0.02

0.30 ± 0.07

0.43 ± 0.03

0.35 ± 0.02

0.48 ± 0.11

Eicosenoic acid (C20:1)

0.56 ± 0.02

0.49 ± 0.09

0.65 ± 0.05

0.54 ± 0.01

0.69 ± 0.11

Eicosanoic acid (C20:0)

0.12 ± 0.01

0.11 ± 0.01

0.15 ± 0.01

0.12 ± 0.02

0.15 ± 0.02

Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)

0.04 ± 0.01

0.04 ± 0.00

0.07 ± 0.02

0.04 ± 0.00

0.06 ± 0.00

Saturated fatty acid

28.73 ± 0.09

28.67 ± 1.43

30.74 ± 1.16

27.57 ± 1.67

31.39 ± 1.70

Unsaturated fatty acid

71.27 ± 0.09

71.33 ± 1.43

69.26 ± 1.16

72.43 ± 1.67

68.61 ± 1.70

Single unsaturated fatty acid

34.42 ± 1.92

30.60 ± 0.67

31.13 ± 5.71

31.51 ± 1.71

28.73 ± 0.94

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

36.84 ± 1.87

40.73 ± 2.10

38.13 ± 6.86

40.92 ± 0.96

39.88 ± 1.71

Comp. of epididymidal fat tissue (%)

PBS

GB100

GB200

STA

IS100

Lauric acid (C12:0)

0.06 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.00

0.07 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.00

0.09 ± 0.02

Myristoleic acid (C14:1)

0.04 ± 0.00

0.05 ± 0.01

0.04 ± 0.01

0.03 ± 0.01

0.06 ± 0.02

Myristic acid (C14:0)

1.00 ± 0.10

0.90 ± 0.04

0.97 ± 0.06

0.89 ± 0.06

1.03 ± 0.03

Pentadecanoic acid (C15:0)

0.17 ± 0.01

0.19 ± 0.01

0.19 ± 0.01

0.16 ± 0.01

0.19 ± 0.01

Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)

2.44 ± 0.29

3.18 ± 0.92

2.61 ± 0.35

3.06 ± 0.31

2.57 ± 0.47

Palmitic acid (C16:0)

18.63 ± 0.27

18.43 ± 1.41

19.53 ± 0.38

19.97 ± 0.58

18.71 ± 0.72

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0)

0.36 ± 0.04

0.38 ± 0.05

0.41 ± 0.02

0.39 ± 0.02

0.38 ± 0.03

Linoleic acid (C18:2)

39.26 ± 1.15

39.86 ± 0.98

36.49 ± 2.13

36.59 ± 1.16

34.77 ± 3.41

Oleic acid (C18:1)

28.85 ± 1.57

27.56 ± 0.96

29.85 ± 1.81

29.92 ± 1.35

32.79 ± 3.43

Stearic acid (C18:0)

7.50 ± 0.22

6.96 ± 1.47

7.71 ± 0.29

7.06 ± 0.41

7.44 ± 0.72

Arachidonic acid (C20:4)

0.32 ± 0.02

0.56 ± 0.06*

0.48 ± 0.07

0.40 ± 0.08

0.47 ± 0.07

Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5)

0.05 ± 0.01

0.08 ± 0.03

0.07 ± 0.02

0.05 ± 0.02

0.05 ± 0.02

Eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3)

0.11 ± 0.01

0.17 ± 0.02*

0.15 ± 0.02

0.14 ± 0.02

0.15 ± 0.02

Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2)

0.46 ± 0.01

0.51 ± 0.01

0.52 ± 0.04

0.51 ± 0.02

0.46 ± 0.06

Eicosenoic acid (C20:1)

0.56 ± 0.02

0.62 ± 0.07

0.58 ± 0.02

0.58 ± 0.03

0.54 ± 0.09

Eicosanoic acid (C20:0)

0.09 ± 0.01

0.09 ± 0.03

0.08 ± 0.00

0.09 ± 0.01

0.12 ± 0.01*

Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6)

0.10 ± 0.01

0.37 ± 0.08*

0.24 ± 0.05

0.11 ± 0.04

0.19 ± 0.06

Saturated fatty acid

27.80 ± 0.33

27.03 ± 3.00

28.96 ± 0.66

28.61 ± 0.91

27.96 ± 1.19

Unsaturated fatty acid

72.20 ± 0.33

72.97 ± 3.00

71.04 ± 0.66

71.39 ± 0.91

72.04 ± 1.19

Single unsaturated fatty acid

31.89 ± 1.39

31.41 ± 1.81

33.09 ± 1.66

33.59 ± 1.35

35.96 ± 3.81

Poly unsaturated fatty acid

40.31 ± 1.10

41.57 ± 1.19

37.95 ± 2.14

37.80 ± 1.24

36.08 ± 3.37

Each value represents mean ± SE

Asterisk marks (*) mean significant differences compared with control (PBS) group (p < 0.05)

In abdominal GB100 or GB200 fat tissue of 1-month treatment period, mono (single) unsaturated fatty acid composition was decreased whereas poly unsaturated fatty acid composition was increased with dose-dependent manner (each group vs CON, p < 0.05). In epididymidal fat tissue of GB100 or GB200 HFD rats of 1-month treatment period, the composition of docosahexaenoic acid in epdidymidal fat tissue showed dose-dependent decrease with significant difference (Gb200 vs CON, p < 0.05). In 1-month treatment groups, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid composition were increased with statistical significance (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05; STA vs CON, p < 0.05).

In abdominal fat of 2-month treated HFD rats, poly unsaturated fatty acid were increased, and monounsaturated fatty acid were dose-dependently decreased (each group vs CON, p < 0.05). Stearic acid composition in IS100 group was higher compared with control group (IS100 vs CON, p < 0.05).

In epididymidal fat of 2-month treated rats, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid composition in GB100 (GB100 vs CON, p < 0.05), and eicosanoic acid composition in IS100 showed significant differences compared with control (IS100 vs CON, p < 0.05).

Discussion

A high-fat diet (HFD) induces obesity and obesity related metabolic complications such as adipose inflammation, hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia [13]. Among various animal sources tested [14], cricket extract was found to be a potent functional food; the adipose tissue fat weight of Wistar rats treated with GB over a 2-month period was decreased, especially the abdominal fat and epididymidal fat. However, body weight was not significantly different in the GB treated and control groups.

Modulating inflammation in adipose tissue ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic complications [15]. GB extract slightly lowered blood pressure and creatinine phosphokinase or otherwise increased thrombin time, showing anticoagulant activity. Repair of protein oxidative damage caused by a high fat diet, carbonyl content and lipid oxidative damage (malondialdehyde, MDA) were decreased by GB treatment [16]. Hepatic mRNA expression of IL-10 was reported to be increased in obese C57BL6/J mice on high-fat diets [17] and overexpression of IL-10 prevented weight gain in animals on HFD [18].

A high-fat diet decreases energy expenditure and the expression of genes controlling lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and skeletal system development in the adipose tissue, along with increased expression of extracellular matrix remodeling- and inflammation-related genes [19].

This study observed meaningful gene expression profiles. Compared to the control, the GB extract-treated rat group (at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg) had 190 up-regulated genes including Gpm6a (glycoprotein m6a) [20], Tmem14a (transmembrane protein 14A) [21] and Fasin (fatty acid synthase) [22] (Table 3) and 235 down-regulated genes including Cc121b (chemokine ligand 21b), Glycan1 (glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule [23], Serpinb1a (serine proteinase inhibitor) [24] and Tcrb (T-cell receptor beta chain) [16] (Table 4).

In accordance with the decreased weight of abdominal fat tissue, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride in GB treated rats were lower than those of the control (PBS treated) group. In the sera of rats treated with GB for 1-month, free fatty acid levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, glucose, triglyceride and alkine phosphatase levels were also decreased in the 100 mg/kg GB extract-treated group. The composition of saturated fatty acid was decreased, while unsaturated fatty acid and poly unsaturated fatty acid were increased in the epididymal adipose tissue, suggesting that a diet rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acid decreases adipose tissue mass and suppresses the development of obesity in rats [3, 25].

Conclusions

GB demonstrated anti-lipidemic effects in Wistar high fat dieted rats by significantly reducing serum triglyceride and alkaline phosphatase levels. Consequently, GB may be a protective nutraceutical for atherosclerosis disorders, including circulatory disorders. The gene expression profile of high fat dieted Wistar rats treated with GB is a valuable prognostic marker that can be used to identify potential therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis.

Materials and methods

Materials

G. bimaculatus was reared in a cricket farm located in Jungsun, Kangwon-Do, South Korea. The cricket was freeze-dried at the Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Korea.

Preparation of G. bimaculatus extract (GB)

Dried G. bimaculatus (1 kg) was homogenized and soaked then extracted three times with 70 % ethanol by ultrasonification for 30 min. The samples were filtered through Whatman filter paper and concentrated by evaporation and freeze-drying. The dried powder (ethanol extract, GB) was dissolved in saline prior to use in the test solution. Isaria sinclairii was also extracted with 70 % ethanol through sonication, evaporation and freeze-drying using the same method as for GB.

Animals

Han Tac Sam-WH (Wistar) rats (male), weighing 308.0 ± 11.0 g at 14-weeks of age, were obtained from Samtako Co. Ltd. (Osan, Korea) and divided into five groups of ten rats including the Wistar control group. All procedures were in accordance with the NIH Guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. All experiments were approved by the Laboratory Animals’ Ethical Committee of the National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA and followed national guidelines for the care and use of animals (individual housing). The rats were acclimated for four weeks under normal husbandry conditions (23 ± 2 °C, 55 ± 10 %, humidity and 12 h light/dark cycle) and fed a high (60 %) fat diet, D12492 (Research Diet Inc., USA) and water ad libitum. The rats were distributed into the following 5 groups (n = 10) with similar weights: I: control group, PBS treatment, II: treated with 100 mg/kg G. bimaculatus ethanol extract, III: treated with 200 mg/kg G. bimaculatus ethanol extract, IV: treated with 2 mg/kg Pravastatin (CJ Heathcare CO., Korea), V: 100 mg/kg Isaria sinclairii ethanol extract. Each group (5 sample groups) was maintained for a one month or two month- period (Scheme 1).

Organ weights

About five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 5). The absolute and relative (organ-to-body weight ratios) weights of the following organs were measured: adrenal glands, kidneys, heart, liver, lung, spleen, stomach, pancreas, thymus and ovaries.

Blood sampling and blood, plasma, serum assay

On five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month-period subgroup (n = 5), after 1 month of treatment, blood (~3 ml) was collected from the posterior vena cava under light CO2 inhalation and used for serum chemistry measurements. The parameters examined included total protein, total bilirubin, glucose, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), CK(creatinine phosphokinase), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, triglyceride, uric acid, sodium, potassium and chloride. All parameters were evaluated using an autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7060 automatic clinical analyzer, Tokyo).

Liver homogenate preparation for oxidative damage detection

About five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 5), liver tissues were homogenized on ice in a 10-fold volume lysis buffer PRO-PREP™ Protein extraction solution (iNtRON, Busan, Korea). The supernatant of the liver homogenate after centrifugation (800 g, 10 min) was assayed for carbonyl content or catalase activity.

Oxidative protein damage (carbonyl content and catalase) quantitation

On the supernatant of liver homogenate and blood of five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 3), the carbonyl content was determined with an enzyme-linked immunoassay according to the manufacturer’s protocol for the OxiSelect™ protein carbonyl ELISA kit, Cell Biolabs, Inc. (Sandiego, USA). Catalase activity (CAT, U/mg protein) was measured according to the method based on CAT-mediated decomposition of H2O2. Potassium phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0, 0.9 ml) was added to 0.1 ml of the sample followed by H2O2 solution (1 ml, 30 mM). The decrease in the absorbance at 240 nm was measured for 90 s [26].

Oxidative lipid damage (malondialdehyde) quantitation

On five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 3), to determine the oxidative lipid damage in GB treated rat hepatocytes, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured with a lipid peroxidation assay using the color method involving thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 535 nm. The liver homogenate (0.5 ml) mentioned earlier as well as sodium dodecyl sulfate (7 % SDS, 1 ml) was incubated for 30 min at 37 °C before mixing with TBA (0.67 %, 2 ml, 1: 1 with acetic acid) and adding to tubes. The tubes were mixed, placed in boiling water (100 °C) for 50 min then mixed with butanol (5 ml). 1,1,3,3-tetraethoxypropane was used as a standard [27].

Cytokine IL-10 assay: R&D kit

On five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 3), the IL-10 level in GB extract-treated rat serumwas measured using commercial ELISA kits (Quantikine, R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

DNA microarray procedure

After histopathology analysis, microarray hybridization was performed on liver samples (Control, GB 100 and GB200). The total RNA was isolated from the liver using a Qiagen RNeasy Midi Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, USA). A regular microarray was carried out according to the manufacturer’s instructions for the FairPlay™ microarray labeling kit (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). Briefly, 20 μg total RNA from the liver was reverse-transcribed into single stranded cDNA. The cDNA was purified with ethanol precipitation and resuspended in 5 μl of 2x coupling buffer, then coupled with 5 μl of Cy3 or Cy5 dye for 1 h in the dark. The labeled control liver cDNA and the treated liver cDNA were combined and purified. The labeled cDNA was mixed with 1.5 μl of 10 μg/μl salmon DNA, 1.5 μl of 8 μg/μl poly d(A), 1.5 μl of 4 μg/μl yeast tRNA, 4.5 μl of 20x SSC and 0.75 μl of 10 % SDS, heated at 99 °C for 2 min, and incubated at 45 °C for 15 min. The labeled DNA was loaded onto a microarray chip. A hybridization chamber was assembled with the microarray chip and submerged in a water bath overnight at 60 °C. The microarray chip was washed in wash buffer I (2x SSC, 0.1 % SDS) for 15 min, then in wash buffer II (1x SSC) for 5 min and in wash buffer III (0.2x SSC) for 15 min. The slide was dried by centrifuging at 500 g for 15 min and scanned with a BMS Array Scanner, applied precision Array WoRx eBiochip Reader (BioRad, Dallas, USA) using the Cy3 and Cy5 channels [28].

Analysis of fatty acid composition in rat adipose tissue

On five groups named CON, GB100, GB200, STA, IS100, divided 1 month- or 2 month- period subgroup (n = 4), for epididymidal and abdominal fat analysis, the concentrations of free fatty acids and fatty acid composition were analyzed for 29 fatty acids in adipose tissue using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Each cut adipose or epididymidal tissue (0.1 g) was collected and extracted overnight bwith a chloroform: methanol (2:1) mixture. The filtered solution was removed under nitrogen gas. The lipids were then saponified by alkaline hydrolysis of phospholipids at 100 °C with 0.5 N methanolic sodium hydroxide and methylated at 100 °C with 14 % BF3 for 15 min. The top layer was transferred to petroleum ether and analyzed by GC/MS (Aglient 6890GC, Aglient 5973 N mass detector, EI mode) with a HP-5 capillary column (Aglient Technolgies, Palto alto, Ca, USA). The inlet temperature was 250 °C and the MS transfer line was kept constant at 230 °C. The oven temperature was held at 180 °C for 20 min, then programmed at 10 °C/min to 230 °C and held for 10 min. Quantification was achieved using a mixed 37 fatty acid standard: Sigma L9405, 10 ρg/mL (Sigma-Aldrich Inc.). Linoleic acid (C18:2n6) was used as an internal standard.

Statistical analysis

The means and standard error of all parameters studied were determined for each group using the ANOVA test. A Student’s t-test was carried out to determine significant differences between control and treated groups. A p value <0.05 was considered significant.

Abbreviations

ALP: 

Alkaline phosphatase

ALT(GPT): 

Glutamate pyruvate transaminase

AST(GOT): 

Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase

BUN: 

Blood urea nitrogen

Ca: 

Calcium

CK: 

Creatinine phosphokinase

Cl: 

Chloride

CRP: 

C-reactive protein

FFA: 

Free fatty acid

GB: 

Gryllus bimaculatus ethanol extract

GB100: 

Gryllus bimaculatus ethanol extract 100 mg/kg

GB200: 

Gryllus bimaculatus ethanol extract 200 mg/kg

GGT: 

γ-glutamyl transferase

H. Chol: 

High cholesterol

HFD: 

High-fat diet

Hct: 

Hematocrit

Hgb: 

Hemoglobin

l.Chol: 

Low cholesterol

IP: 

Inorganic phosphorus

IS100: 

I. sinclairii ethanol extract 100 mg/kg

LDH: 

Lactate dehydrogenase

MCH: 

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

MCHC: 

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

MCV: 

Mean corpuscular volume

K: 

Potassium

Na: 

Sodium

T. Chol: 

Total cholesterol

TG: 

Triglyceride

PLT: 

Partial thromboplastin time

STA: 

Provastastin

PT: 

Prothrombin time

RBC: 

Red blood cell

T. Bil: 

Total bilirubin

WBC: 

White blood cell

Declarations

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by the Rural Development Administration National Research project, PJ009827.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA
(2)
Pharmacogenechips Inc.

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© Ahn et al. 2015

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