- Open Access
Evaluation of nutritional value, characteristics, functional properties of Cymodocea nodosa and its benefits on health diseases
© The Author(s). 2017
- Received: 18 September 2017
- Accepted: 27 November 2017
- Published: 8 December 2017
Nutritional fact study has prime importance to make the species edible and commercially viable to the food consumers. This is the first report that indicates the chemical characterization, functional, antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Cymodocea nodosa to evaluate its nutritional status.
Physico-chemical determination was determined by colorimetric and spectroscopic analysis. The functional and texture properties were evaluated since a desirable texture should be retained. Bioactive substances were determined by liquid chromatography-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2 analysis. Health benefit of this plant was highlighting by the antioxidant and antihypertensive potentials.
Results showed that the seagrass powder was characterized by a high content of fibers (56.4%), the fatty acids profile was dominated by the oleic acid, which represents about 62.0% of the total fatty acids and the functional properties proved important values of swelling capacity (6.71 ± 0.2) and water holding capacity (12.26 ± 0.25), that were comparable to those of some foodstuffs. Finally, the physico-chemical analysis shows the wealth in phenolic compounds, that could be explained by the high antioxidant and antihypertensive ability which was concentration dependent.
The results from this study suggested that this marine plant could be utilized as a healthy food item for human consumption.
- Cymodocea Nodosa
- Nutritional value
- Biological properties
In recent years, the life style has given rise to important changes in our food habits, that’s why research has focused on the identification of the nutritional value of our aliments.
In Tunisia, as in all countries of the Maghreb and developing countries, the use of herbal medicine is widespread, and several herbal remedies used individually or in combination are recommended to treat a lot of diseases, obesity and hypertension in the population. As a consequence, nowadays, there is a huge interest among consumers and food industry on products that can promote health and well-being. These foods have been generically named functional foods, which were initially enriched with vitamins and/or minerals, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, folic acid, zinc, iron, and calcium . Later, the approach changed to enrich foods with several micronutrients such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, Phyto sterols, soluble fiber (inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides, called prebiotics), etc., trying to promote consumers health or to prevent different diseases . Seagrasses can be a very interesting natural source of new compounds with biological activity that could be used as functional ingredients. In fact, seagrasses are submerged marine angiosperms, producing flowers, fruits and seeds and they have separate roots, leaves and underground stems (rhizomes), which enable them to form an extensive network below the surface of water (Tropical topics, 1993). Human consumption of seagrasses is not entirely confined to the past. In South–East Asia, seeds of Enhalus acoroides are still a food source for coastal populations , whereas the rhizomes of Cymodocea spp. are used in the preparation of salad.
Studies on herbal plants, vegetables, and fruits have indicated the presence of antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanidins. Antioxidant agents of natural origin have attracted special interest because of their free radical scavenging abilities.
Along the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts Cymodocea nodosa (C. nodosa) is very frequent but not very studied, there are very few literatures involving the nutritional value of this species. It is most often simple signals herbarium, sometimes accompanied by brief descriptions of their structure and / or study of their associated fauna.
For these reasons, we proposed to develop this research in order to see the potential for valorization as a new functional ingredient of natural origin of this marine plant (C. nodosa) collected from Chebba (Tunisia).
C. nodosa sample were collected from the coast of the Chebba in spring 2014, washed thoroughly with fresh water to remove epiphytes stored and other dirt particles, milled in a mechanical grinder for 5 min, to obtain a fine and homogeneous powder and then were stored in hermetic bags at room temperature (25°C).
The dry matter was determined by drying a 1 g of sample in a thermo regulated incubator (Memert 40050ip20, Germany) at 105°C until constant weight . Ash content was determined by incinerating the dry matter of the crude extract of the lyophilized polysaccharide in an electric muffle furnace maintained at 550°C . Total sugars were determined according to the Dubois et al. method . The proteins were assayed by the Bradford method . The extraction of the lipids was carried out according to standard NF 03–713 . The uronic acid value was quantified colorimetrically according to the method described by Blumenkrantz and Asboe-Hansen . Total dietary fiber was evalueted by the gravimetric method proposed by AOAC . A Hanna instrument 8418 pH meter (Switzerland) was used to measuring the pH at 20 °C. The water activity (aw) WAS measured at 25 °C using an apparatus (Novasina Aw Sprint TH-500, Switzerland).
The three-color parameters (L *, a *, b *) of the polysaccharide extract of Cymodocea nodosa were determined using a Minolta colorimeter Chroma Meter CR-300, CIE (1976) which is a color analyzer equipped with a measuring head. Calibration of the instrument is carried out before the analysis by placing the measuring head on a white plate.
The value of L * measures the brightness from 0 (black) to 100 (white),
The value of a * ranges from −100 (green) to +100 (red),
The value of b * ranges from −100 (blue) to +100 (yellow).
Chlorophylls and carotenoids contents
The total carotenoids content was determined according to the method of Britton .
The main mineral contents (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, copper and cadmium) in the Cymodocea nodosa polysaccharide extract are determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Hitachi Z6100, Japan) after acid attack by concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) .
Fatty acid composition
Lipids were extracted from the powdered C. nodosa by the method of Bligh and Dyer . Esterification and analysis of fatty acid composition were carried out following the standard procedures (USP-NF, 2007b; PF, 2004). GC (ASHMACO, Model No. ABD20A Bio-Rad,Tokyo, Japan) was used for estimation of fatty acids. The gas chromatograph was equipped with a flame ionization detector maintained at 280 °C and a 50 m × 0.25 mm fused silica capillary column coated with macrogol 20,000 of thickness 0.25 μm. The injection port temperature was kept at 250 °C; the carrier gas was helium with the flow fate of 1 ml/min, the split ratio 1:100. Individual peaks of methyl esters were identified by comparison of the retention times and calculated equivalent chain length values with those of authentic standards.
Functional properties of powdered seagrass
Water holding capacity (WHC)
The water absorption of C. nodosa sample was measured by the modified centrifugation method described by Gareau et al. . The 3.0 g of sample were dispersed in 25 ml of distilled water and placed in pre-weighed centrifuge tubes. The dispersions were stirred and were left at 25 °C for 1 h, followed by centrifugation for 25 min at 3000 g. The supernatants were discarded and the moisture content of the samples was determined by dehydration in an oven for 25 min at 50 °C. The water absorption capacity was expressed as grams of water bound per gram of the sample on a dry basis.
Swelling capacity (SWC)
SWC of C. nodosa sample was analyzed by the bed volume technique after equilibrating in excess solvent. To 1.0 g of sample, in a 10 ml measuring cylinder, 10 ml of distilled water were added and the mixture was vigorously stirred. The measuring cylinder was left to stand for 18 h at room temperature. The swelling volume was measured and expressed as cm3 of swollen sample per gram of sample.
Oil holding capacity (OHC)
Samples (0.5 g) were mixed with 6 ml of corn oil in pre-weighed centrifuge tubes. The dispersions were stirred and left at 25 °C for 1 h, followed by centrifugation for 25 min at 3000 g. The oil supernatant was then removed and measured. The OHC of C. nodosa sample was expressed as the number of grams of oil held by 1 g of sample (DW) .
Thermal analysis of CNE was conducted with a Perkin–Elmer DSC4000. The sample (6 mg) was placed in aluminum pans, scanned from −50 °C to 250 °C at a rate of 5 °C/min, an empty aluminum pan was used as reference.
The texture properties of C. nodosa extract were determined by texture profile analysis (TPA test). A texture analyzer (TA.XT2; Stable Micro Systems, UK) was used to measure the force time curve for a two-cycle compression. The instrument provides two upward positive areas (1 and 2) and two downward negative curves areas (3 and 4). Areas 3 and 4 were observed just after the first compression (Area 1) and the second compression (Area 2), respectively. The TPA analyses were conducted using a cylindrical probe (16 mm diameter). The conditions were as follows: 15 mm compression, the test speed is of 0.5 mm/s, the posttest speed is of 1 mm/s and the time lapse between compressions was 20 s. All the operations were automatically controlled by the texture “Nexygen Lot” software connected to the instrument.
Particle size distribution
The particle size distribution was determined by Laser scattering using a Malvern Master sizer 2000 (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK). Size distribution (10–20 g) sample was quantified as relative volume of particles in size bands presented as size distribution curves. The percentage of the particles having the same size was calculated by Software (Malvern Software V 2).
Observations were carried out at room temperature using an optical microscope (Nikon Eclipse E400, Kanagawa, Japan) with a 40objective magnification. Some microgrammes of powder of the sample were placed on a glass slide and covered with a coverslip. The software employed for visualization was Lucia (version 4.5) and pictures were taken using a Basler video camera (Vision technologies, Ahrensburg, Germany).
Preparation of hydroethanolic extract
The extraction was carried out on fresh green leaves of C. nodosa. Leaves were dried and powdered for the extraction. A mixture of ethanol and water (200 ml, 4:1 v/v) was added to the 50 g of C. nodosa powder and the mixture was kept under agitation for 24 h. Subsequently, the solution was filtered using Whatman No°3 filter paper. The extract was concentrated by evaporation to dryness at 40 °C, and the residue obtained was stored in glass vials, at 4 °C in the dark until further use.
Determination of total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins
Total content of phenolic compounds of C. nodosa extract was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method  using gallic acid as standard. Total flavonoid content was determined according to the method of Dewanto et al.  with minor modifications, using quercetin as standard. Sample (20 μl) was mixed with 30 μl of 5% (w/v) NaNO2 solution for 6 min, before addition of 60 μl of freshly prepared 10% (w/v) AlCl3 6H2O. After 5 min, 200 μl of 1 M NaOH and 690 μl of bidistilled water were added and the absorbance was determined at 510 nm. Results are expressed as mg quercetin equivalent (QE) per g extract. Condensed tannins were measured according to the vanillin assay described by Sun et al.  using catechin as standard.
Liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS) analysis
A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography technique was developed to identify and quantify the major compounds contained in the C. nodosa extract. Concentrations were calculated based on peak areas compared to those of external standards. The HPLC chromatograph was a Schimadzu apparatus equipped with a (LC-10ATvp) pump and a (SPD-10Avp) detector. The column was (4.6 mm × 250 mm) (Shim-pack, VP-ODS) and the temperature was maintained at 40 °C. The flow rate was 0.3 ml/min. The mobile phase used was 0.1% phosphoric acid in water (A) versus 70% acetonitrile in water (B) for a total running time of 40 min, and the gradient changed as follows: solvent B started at 20% and increased immediately to 50% in 30 min. After that, elution was conducted in the isocratic mode with 50% solvent B within 5 min. Finally, solvent B decreased to 20% until the end of running time.
Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated with the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay. The antiradical capacity of the sample extract was estimated according to the procedure reported by Brand-Williams et al. . The ABTS•+ assay was based on the method of Re et al. . Total antioxidant activity was determined according to the method of Kumaran and Karunakaran. . Reducing power was determined by the method of Yamaguchi et al. .
Determination of ACE inhibition activity
ACE inhibitory activity was measured in triplicate as reported by Kolsi et al. . The IC50 value, defined as the concentration of CNE (mg/ml) required to inhibit 50% of ACE activity was calculated for sample using non-linear regression from a plot of percentage ACE inhibition versus sample concentrations.
Data were expressed by mean ± SD. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by Student’s t-test. A p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
Physico-chemical characteristics of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass
Values (% dry weight)
70.3 ± 2.46
16.4 ± 1.05
7.21 ± 0.11
4.54 ± 0.02
7.28 ± 0,41
8,31 ± 0,9
Total dietary fiber
56.40 ± 0.4
32.20 ± 0.7
24.20 ± 2.5
6.58 ± 0.18
0.44 ± 0.03
40.85 ± 0.07
1.62 ± 0.02
21.60 ± 0.04
The protein content found in the present study was relatively average (7.21% dry weight). This amount was in conformity with the value reported by Torbatinejad et al.  on some marine plants, ranged from 4.4% to 7.3%. However, this quantity was found to be lower than that of other research (28.7% - 18.6%) , variations in the protein content can be attributed to species differences and seasonal periods.
C. nodosa sample is relatively low in lipid (4.54%). These results are comparably lower than those reported by Ghoniemy et al.  for C. nodosa (36.5%) and Ruppia cirrhosa (15%), but higher than those estimated by Yamamuro et al.  for some seagrasses collected along the coast of Thailand. The differences could be attributed to factors such as climate, geography of development of the sample and to the method used to extract oil .
Marine plants are known as an excellent source of vitamins and minerals, due to their high polysaccharide content, which could also imply a high level of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber . As shown in Table 1, the total dietary fiber was 56.40% DW, which proves it was the most abundant component in this seagrass. In this study, it was demonstrated that C. nodosa contained both soluble (24.20% DW) and insoluble (32.20% DW) dietary fiber (Table 1), which were in accordance than the values determined in green seaweeds .
The uronic acid content of C. nodosa extract (8.31%) was similar to those previously obtained by Yaich et al. . The presence of uronic acids reflects the occurrence of soluble polysaccharide and the purity levels of the extract . C. nodosa also had a high pH (6.58), this could be attributed to their high content in organic acids such as citric and malic acids, which are important for sensory properties and preservation .
Color influences the acceptability of food products, is one of the aesthetic properties that determine the suitability of C. nodosa to the application for which it is intended. As shown in Table 1, C. nodosa powder is colored; the high L* value (40.85) indicated that it had a light color, and the a * and b * values are in the order of (1.62) and (21.60), respectively, reflecting the relatively dark color of the product. Consequently, the use of this material could affect the color of the final product.
The C. nodosa sample showed low water activity (0.44), which is known sufficiently low to protect it against microbial alterations. The lower water activity is necessary for a better stability of the product by limiting the quantity of free water necessary for chemical reactions and proliferation of the microorganisms.
Chlorophylls and carotenoids content of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass
Amount of pigments (mg/g DW)
0.038 ± 0.009
0.029 ± 0.005
0.067 ± 0.097
0.929 ± 0.006
Chemical constituents of pigment produced by C. nodosa were as a resulting to nutrient composition of growth medium. This pigment composition is similar to that other angiosperms (Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis, H.beccarii Cymodocea serrulata) which indicated that there is a clear seasonal variation in pigments concentration by registering the minimum value during the monsoon season when the water column was more turbid and the light availability to the seagrasses was limited causing light stress which is considered to be the important parameter for decreasing chlorophylls content and other photosynthetic growth parameters of seagrasses .
In general, the pigments contents can be affected by several environmental factors largely influenced by the availability of the light and morphology of the seagrass leaves and the depth in which the plants are growing .
C. nodosa mineral fraction is composed mainly of magnesium (3510.17 mg/100 g dry weight), followed by potassium (1233.05 mg/100 g dry weight), while the other elements were Ca (680.55 mg/100 g dry weight), Na (421.285 mg/100 g dry weight) and P (152.965 mg/100 g dry weight). These remarkable levels of minerals can be attributed to the bioaccumulation capacity of the marine plant to nutrients in the environment where it survives . These amounts can be attributed to the relative abundance of these elements in the surrounding water. Otherwise, it is difficult to compare the results of various investigations because of differences in treatments of the species and extraction procedures.
Several biological roles of many trace elements have been reported. Calcium and magnesium are essential trace elements in the structure and functioning of the human body. All of these properties influence their interactions with biological molecules of all natures. At the level of the physiological involvement of these two ions, one notes the importance of their equilibrium in the various compartments of the organism as well as their multiple functions in the different organs. Concerning the more specific study of these ions in terms of bone composition, renal function and transmission of nerve impulses, the observation of the different actions and regulations of calcium and magnesium makes it possible to highlight the complexity of their effects.
Heavy metals were regarded as being of the principal causes of environmental pollution, being given their toxicity, their persistence and their potential of bioaccumulation. The composition of the C. nodosa in heavy metals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), plumb (Pb), and nickel (Ni)) was shown in Fig. 1b. The content of seagrasses in this elements undergoes a wide range of variations with a trend in concentration of Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb in this species collected from the coast of Chebba. This was explained by the existence of higher levels of respiration and photosynthesis during the season of collect, which would favor the assimilation of metals.
Fatty acid composition
Fatty acid composition of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass
21.65 ± 0.11
1.85 ± 0.05
5.09 ± 0.07
62.43 ± 0.17
7.56 ± 0.23
0.97 ± 0.03
0.07 ± 0.09
0.38 ± 0.02
Functional properties of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass
Water holding capacity: WHC (g water/g DW)
12.26 ± 0.25
Swelling capacity: SWC (ml/g DW)
6.71 ± 0.2
Oil holding capacity: OHC (g oil/g DW)
1.63 ± 0.03
Texture properties of Cymodocea nodosa seagrass
Chewiness (N mm)
Breaking force (N)
Adhesiveness force (N mm)
Firmness is related to cohesiveness in that it is the force which is necessary to attain a given deformation; it describes the extent to which a material can be deformed before it ruptures. In this context, the sample presented a (0.58) cohesiveness value. Springiness means how well a product physically springs back after it has been deformed during the first compression. The springiness of C. nodosa (11.6 mm) was rather higher. Adhesiveness is an important parameter for food products, is more of a surface characteristic and depends on a combined effect of adhesive and cohesive forces, the result of sample adhesiveness value (0.92 N) was recorded in Table 5. The tested sample has an important resistance to chewing forces (6.83 N mm). Chewiness is the quantity to simulate the energy required for masticating a semi-solid sample to a steady state of swallowing. Indeed, C. nodosa marine plant presented highest firmness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness; these results are in line with some recent studies of algae and dietary fiber made by Ayadi et al. , yaich et al. , but it’s the first report that indicates the textural properties of C. nodosa species.
The peak force attained during the test is referred to as adhesiveness and breaking force. This can be explained by cells membrane deterioration during freezing inducing the loss of binding capacity among cell walls. As consequence C. nodosa lose her firmness (0.79 N/mm of rigidity) and reduce their thickness (23 mm).
The morphology of C. nodosa extract
Thus the optical microscope, provides macroscopic information on crystalline structure which corresponds to the areas of yellow and blue sky in Fig. 2b, that is optically anisotropic. This anisotropy allows for polarized light contrast depending on the orientation of the particles.
Particle size distribution
According to Guillon and Champ , the particle size distribution depends on the type of cell walls and on the technological treatments (degree of grinding, thermal treatment, etc.). Considering the highest fiber content observed in C. nodosa, it would be at the origin of this substantial difference size distribution powders.
Phenolic profile using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS2
In this study, four flavonoids (3, 6, 7 and 8) and three phenolic acid derivatives (2, 4 and 5) were characterized from the C. nodosa extract. Peak 1 (tR 3.2 min; λmax 330 nm) gave a molecular ion [M-H]ˉat m/z 391. Its MS2 spectrum presented two fragment ions at m/z 216 and m/z198, however, the compound 1 could not be identified. Peak 2 (tR 3.6 min; λmax 314 nm) was tentatively identified as sinapic acid derivative according to the fragment ions at m/z 223 [sinapic acid-H] and at m/z 179 [sinapic acid-H-CO2] observed in MS2 spectrum.
Compound 3 displayed UV maximum absorption at 276 nm and gave [M-H]ˉ ion at m/z 289. It was identified as catechin [39, 40]. Peak 4 (tR 4.3 min; λmax 323 nm) having [M-H]ˉion at m/z 385 and Peak 5 (tR 5.2 min; λmax 276 nm) with [M-H]ˉion at m/z 293 were tentatively assigned as ferulic and cinnamic acid derivatives, respectively. They presented characteristic MS2 ions at m/z 193 [ferulic acid-H] and at m/z 147 [cinnamic acid-H].
Concerning compounds 6, 7 and 8, their UV spectra exhibited two maximum absorptions in the 254-255 nm range and in the 354–356 nm range, characteristics of flavonols. Peaks 6 (tR 8.3 min) and 7 (tR 10.2 min) showed parent ions [M-H]ˉ at m/z 609 and at m/z 463, respectively. They exhibited the same main MS2 ion at m/z 301 which corresponds to quercetin aglycone. Thus, they were characterized as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside . The MS2 fragment ion at m/z 315 of compound 8 is assigned to isorhamnetin derivative. Moreover, this compound showed [M-H]ˉ ion at m/z 623, therefore, it was identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside .
Determination of phenolic compounds
Content of total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins of Cymodocea nodosa extract
Total phenols (mg GAE/g extract)
122.22 ± 13.36
Flavonoids (mg QE/g extract)
81.50 ± 9.83
Condensed tannins (mg CE/g extract)
54.58 ± 13.65
This marine species contains active compounds at various qualitative and quantitative levels. Our results confirmed those reported by others who found that marine organisms produced large variety of secondary metabolites leading to the development of new bioactive compounds of various chemical classes . For example, it was reported in this study that the C. nodosa extract possesses higher concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids compounds. Similar results were described by Pradheeba et al. , they emphasized that quantitative estimation of the leaves of eight seagrass species proved highest concentration of phenolic compounds, such higher phenol content in seagrass leaves could be attributed to the defense mechanism of the plant against the epiphytes.
Besides, condensed tannins are present in low concentrations (54.58 mg CE/g extract) compared to total phenols and flavonoids compounds. Similar results were described by other studies in the literature for other extracts of plants . According to the literature, leaves may contain more antioxidant molecules than other parts of the plant. Phenolic compounds of plants have potent antioxidant activities and have been shown to be highly effective scavengers of most antioxidant molecules, including singlet oxygen, and various free radicals. So, comparable with the findings in the literature for other extracts of plant products , our results suggested that phenolic and flavonoids compounds may be the major contributors for the antioxidant activities.
Our results are in agreement with those described for other extracts from five species of seagrasses and six species of seaweeds which were collected from the Gulf of Mannar, on the southeastern coast of India . However, the CNE exhibited important values for the total antioxidant activity and the reducing power (90.36 mg/ml and 0.41, respectivily) very similar to the vitamin C (94 mg/ml and 0.45, respectivily). The reducing properties are generally associated with the presence of reductones, which have been shown to exert antioxidant effect by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom. Reductones are also reported to respond to various precursors of peroxides, thus, preventing their generation. The reducing capacity of a compound may serve as a significant indicator of its potential antioxidant capacity.
This antioxidant activity could be explained by the high content of polyphenolic, flavonoid in CNE. Diverse pharmacological activities inherent to medicinal plants have been attributed to their phenolic composition. The antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds is principally due to their redox properties, which make them act as hydrogen donors, reducing agents, and singlet oxygen quenchers. The chemical composition and structures of active extract components are important factors governing the efficacy of natural antioxidants. Further studies are needed for the isolation and identification of individual phenolic compounds and the assessment of their antioxidant activities concerning the C. nodosa species.
ACE inhibitory activity of CNE
One of the therapeutic approaches to hypertension is the use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Thus, the renin-angiotensin system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolytes and blood volume, and in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Since the synthetic ACE inhibitors may cause adverse side effects, plant molecules could be used as natural and economical ACE inhibitors for hypertension prevention.
This work had as objectives the characterization and the contribution to the valuation of the C. nodosa seagrass based on the lack of results on its techno-functional and biological properties in Tunisia.
The nutritional value of this marine plant derives from the fact that they are characterized by an important composition in dietary fiber, minerals with relatively high levels of protein and lipids and some polyunsaturated fatty acids. Indeed, the relative results of chemical analysis, morphology, texture, particle comportment and functional properties highlight his optimal usage levels in foods since a desirable texture should be retained. In fact, the wealth, especially in dietary fiber has the ability to limit the occurrence of certain diseases (hypertension) with the oxidative stress damages.
This work was supported financially by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Tunisia.
Availability of data and materials
The data that support the findings of this study are available upon request to the corresponding author.
RBK contributed to the main points of the work, which is a part of her Ph. D. SS contributed the functional analyses. HB and NA supervised the chemical analyses. HB and KB designed the work. All Authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Sloan AE. The top 10 functional food trends: the next generation. Food Technol. 2002;56(4):32–57.Google Scholar
- Montaño MNE, Bonifacio RS, Rumbaoa RGO. Proximate analysis of the flour and starch from Enhalus Acoroides (lf) Royle seeds. Aquat Bot. 1999;65(1):321–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Latimer JW, Horwitz W, editors, AOAC International; 2005.Google Scholar
- Dubois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PAT, Smith F. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem. 1956;28(3):350–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976;72(1–2):248–54.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- AFNOR E. Méthodes d’essai. Recueil des normes françaises; 1986.Google Scholar
- Blumenkrantz N, Asboe-Hansen G. New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids. Anal Biochem. 1973;54(2):484–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Meléndez-Martínez AJ, Britton G, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ. Color and carotenoid profile of Spanish Valencia late ultrafrozen orange juices. Food Res Int. 2005;38(8):931–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshii Y, Hanyuda T, Wakana I, Miyaji K, Arai S, Ueda K, Inouye I. Carotenoid compositions of cladophora balls (aegagropila linnaei) and some members of the cladophorales (ulvophyceae, chlorophyta): their taxonomic and evolutionary implication1. J Phycol. 2004;40(6):1170–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol. 1959;37(8):911–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gareau MG, Jury J, MacQueen G, Sherman PM, Perdue MH. Probiotic treatment of rat pups normalises corticosterone release and ameliorates colonic dysfunction induced by maternal separation. Gut. 2007;56(11):1522–8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic. 1965;16(3):144–58.Google Scholar
- Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Liu RH. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(10):3010–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun B, Ricardo-da-Silva JM, Spranger I. Critical factors of vanillin assay for catechins and proanthocyanidins. J Agric Food Chem. 1998;46(10):4267–74.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset CLWT. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food science and Technology. 1995;28(1):25–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999;26(9):1231–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. In vitro antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of five Phillanthus species from India. J Sci Res. 2007;40:344–52.Google Scholar
- Yamaguchi T, Ishii K. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2005;19(3):677–83.Google Scholar
- Kolsi RBA, Fakhfakh J, Krichen F, Jribi I, Chiarore A, Patti FP, Blecker C, Allouche N, Belghith H, Belghith K. Structural characterization and functional properties of antihypertensive Cymodocea nodosa sulfated polysaccharide. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2016;151:511–22.Google Scholar
- Yaich H, Garna H, Bchir B, Besbes S, Paquot M, Richel A, Attia H. Chemical composition and functional properties of dietary fibre extracted by Englyst and Prosky methods from the alga Ulva Lactuca collected in Tunisia. Algal Res. 2015;9:65–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yaich H, Garna H, Besbes S, Paquot M, Blecker C, Attia H. Chemical composition and functional properties of Ulva Lactuca seaweed collected in Tunisia. Food Chem. 2011;128(4):895–901.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Torbatinejad N, Sabin JR. Laboratory evaluation of some marine plants on south Australian beaches. J Agric Sci Technol. 2010;3:91–100.Google Scholar
- Ghoniemy, A. E., Daboor, S. M., Abd El-Hady, H. H. (2007). Nutritive and antimicrobial profiles of some seagrasses from Bardawil Lake, Egypt.Google Scholar
- Yamamuro M, Chirapart A. Quality of the seagrass Halophila Ovalis on a Thai intertidal flat as food for the dugong. J Oceanogr. 2005;61(1):183–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ortiz J, Romero N, Robert P, Araya J, Lopez-Hernandez J, Bozzo C, Rios A. Dietary fiber, amino acid, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the edible seaweeds Ulva Lactuca and Durvillaea antarctica. Food Chem. 2006;99:98–104.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lahaye M, Jegou D. Chemical and physical-chemical characteristics of dietary fibres from Ulva Lactuca (L.) Thuret and Enteromorpha Compressa (L.) Grev. J Appl Phycol. 1993;5(2):195–200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Poyrazoglu E, Gokmen V, Artik N. Organic acids Phenolic compounds in pomegranates (Punica Granatum L.) grow in Turkey. J Food Compos Anal. 2002;15:567–75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pradheeba M, Dilipan E, Nobi EP, Thangaradjou T, Sivakumar K. Evaluation of seagrasses for their nutritional value. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 2011;40(1):105.Google Scholar
- Sánchez-Rodrıguez I, Huerta-Diaz MA, Choumiline E, Holguın-Quinones O, Zertuche-González JA. Elemental concentrations in different species of seaweeds from Loreto Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico: implications for the geochemical control of metals in algal tissue. Environ Pollut. 2001;114(2):145–60.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kharlamenko VI, Kiyashko SI, Imbs AB, Vyshkvartzev DI. Identification of food sources of invertebrates from the seagrass Zostera Marina community using carbon and sulfur stable isotope ratio and fatty acid analyses. Mar Ecol Prog Ser. 2001;220:103–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cowey CB, Owen JM, Adron JW, Middleton C. Studies on the nutrition of marine flatfish. The effect of different dietary fatty acids on the growth and fatty acid composition of turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus). Br J Nutr. 1976;36:479–86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gomez-Ordonez E, Jiménez-Escrig A, Rupérez P. Dietary fibre and physicochemical properties of several edible seaweeds from the northwestern Spanish coast. Food Res Int. 2010;43(9):2289–94.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong KH, Cheung PC. Nutritional evaluation of some subtropical red and green seaweeds: part I—proximate composition, amino acid profiles and some physico-chemical properties. Food Chem. 2000;71(4):475–82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Grigelmo-Miguel M, et Martin-Belloso O. Characterization of dietary fiber from orange juice extraction. Food Res Int. 1999;131:355–61.Google Scholar
- Ayadi MA, Abdelmaksoud W, Ennouri M, Attia H. Cladodes from Opuntia Ficus Indica as a source of dietary fiber: effect on dough characteristics and cake making. Ind Crop Prod. 2009;30(1):40–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ma J, Lim LC. Effect of particle size distribution on sintering of agglomerate-free submicron alumina powder compacts. J Eur Ceram Soc. 2002;22(13):2197–208.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guillon F, Champ M. Structural and physical properties of dietary fibres, and consequences of processing on human physiology. Food Res Int. 2000;33(3):233–45.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Roos Y. Characterisation of food polymers using state diagrams. J Food Eng. 1995;24:339–60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Robbins KS, Ma Y, Wells ML, Greenspan P, Pegg RB. Separation and characterization of phenolic compounds from US pecans by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62(19):4332–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karar E, Quiet L, Rezk A, Jaiswal R, Rehders M, Ullrich MS, Brix K, Kuhnert N. Phenolic profile and in vitro assessment of Cytotox city and antibacterial activity of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extracts. Med Chem. 2016;6(3):143–56.Google Scholar
- Newman DJ, Cragg GM, Snader KM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the period 1981-2002. J Nat Prod. 2003;66(7):1022–37.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sakanaka S, Tachibana Y, Okada Y. Preparation and antioxidant properties of extracts of Japanese persimmon leaf tea (kakinoha-cha). Food Chem. 2005;89(4):569–75.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis Leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12(1):1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Athiperumalsami T, Rajeswari VD, Poorna SH, Kumar V, Jesudass LL. Antioxidant activity of seagrasses and seaweeds. Botanica Marina. 2010;53(3):251–57.Google Scholar